Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics1735-357216720230505Aerodynamic Drag Improvements on a Simplified Heavy Vehicle using Three-sided Plain and Notched Base Flaps14671482223610.47176/jafm.16.07.1748ENE. FÄ±ratDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Munzur University, Tunceli, 62000, Turkey0000-0003-2800-6714Journal Article20230104An experimental investigation has been undertaken to determine the effects of plain and notched base flaps on the drag performance of simplified tractor-trailer combination without any intermediate gap, Generalized European Transport System (GETS). Both plain and notched base flaps are rigid, made up of three identical flaps whose length is equal to the width of the GETS model, and not angled inward or outward. The experiments examined three-sided flap configurations corresponding to various combinations of seven heights of the plain part (from 10 to 40 mm in steps of 5 mm), four notch amplitudes (from 2.5 to 10 mm in steps of 2.5 mm), and five notch wavelengths (from 10 to 50 mm in steps of 10 mm). It is shown that the drag performance of the plain flap at zero yaw highly depends on the height of the plain flap. The maximum drag reduction occurs for <em>e/w</em>=0.1 yielding a drag reduction of 1.9% when compared to the GETS model without flap (baseline GETS). It was shown that the time-averaged drag coefficient increased slightly until a maximum was reached at <em>e/w</em>=0.3 but then decreased slightly with increasing <em>e/w</em>. Under zero yaw angle conditions, GETS model with a notched base flap, e10-a05.0-λ20, gives the lowest drag. The addition of this base flap to the GETS model resulted in a 2.8% drag reduction. This notched base flap was shown to be more effective not only at reducing <<em>C<sub>D</sub></em>> under yawed flow conditions tested but also at reducing time-averaged side coefficient under yawed flow conditions tested, compared to the e10-a00.0-λ00 flap.https://www.jafmonline.net/article_2236_39c254e6e9f4e9a397b57ada9e7eed80.pdf