Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics1735-3572161120230903Air Bubble Size and Its Transition in a Horizontal Tube Produced by Venturi-Nozzle Bubble Generator20822100228910.47176/jafm.16.11.1845ENW. H.GooDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaP. B.GanesanDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaCentre for Energy Sciences & Centre for Research in Biotechnology for Agriculture (CEBAR), Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaK. W.YongDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaM. Y.AhmadDepartment of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaY. H.YauDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaF.HamadDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Teesside University Middlesbrough, Middlesbrough TS1 3BX, UK0000-0002-1604-8565Journal Article20230227This paper investigates the air bubble size and its transition in a horizontal tube of 700 mm. The tube was assembled with a venturi-nozzle bubble generator. Air and water flow-rates vary in the present study. The data collection mainly used high-speed camera to capture the bubbles at different distances along the horizontal tube at water flow-rates (Q<sub>w</sub>) of 120-170 litre per min (LPM) and air flow-rates (Q<sub>a</sub>) of 2-10 LPM. MATLAB was used in image processing for evaluating the bubble size. The data interpretation used Y<sub>W</sub> dimensionless parameter in representing the height of the bubbles’ vertical rise in the horizontal tube. The bubble size along the horizontal tube was characterized by the Weber number as well. The type of two-phase (water-air bubbles) flow along the horizontal tube from the venturi-nozzle bubble generator was determined using flow pattern map and Lockhart-Martinelli parameter. The bubble generator produced bubbles in the range of 0.8-3.1 mm at the inlet of horizontal tube. The bubble diameters increased as the bubbles moved horizontally from inlet to outlet of the horizontal tube and this finding was statistically significant. The vertical rise height of bubbles along the horizontal tube at different water and air flow-rates had been quantified and compared. The vertical rise height of bubbles increased axially from 41 % to 89 % from inlet to outlet of the horizontal tube. The bubbles’ vertical rise height increased when either the air flow-rate or water flow-rate is reduced. The mean Weber number increased along the horizontal tube due to an increase in bubble size. The decrease in water flow-rate caused a decrease in the mean Weber number. The Lockhart-Martinelli parameter of the water-air bubbles flow in the horizontal tube was within 0.58-2.94, indicating that it was a multiphase flow. The findings from this study give fundamental insight into bubble dynamics behaviour in its horizontal transition. This study focuses on the size and transition of air bubbles produced by venturi-nozzle bubble generator along a horizontal tube at different water and air flow-rates, unlike previous studies which only investigate the air bubbles inside or near bubble generator. These findings are very useful for practical industrial applications because the exact air bubble size before being used is known.https://www.jafmonline.net/article_2289_74c9720e6871d72358f734d1bda7e1e6.pdfJournal of Applied Fluid Mechanics1735-3572161120230903Experimental Study on Wind Load and Wind-Induced Interference Effect of Three High-Rise Buildings21012114229010.47176/jafm.16.11.1897ENH.CuiState Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and System Safety of Traffic Engineering Structures, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang Hebei 050043, ChinaInnovation Center for Wind Engineering and Wind Energy Technology of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang Hebei 050043, ChinaDepartment of Mathematics and Physics, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang Hebei 050043, ChinaH.AnSchool of Civil Engineering, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050043, ChinaM.MaSchool of Civil Engineering, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050043, ChinaZ.HanState Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and System Safety of Traffic Engineering Structures, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang Hebei 050043, ChinaInnovation Center for Wind Engineering and Wind Energy Technology of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang Hebei 050043, ChinaSchool of Civil Engineering, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050043, ChinaS. C.SahaSchool of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo NSW 2007, AustraliaQ.LiuState Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and System Safety of Traffic Engineering Structures, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang Hebei 050043, ChinaInnovation Center for Wind Engineering and Wind Energy Technology of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang Hebei 050043, ChinaSchool of Civil Engineering, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050043, China0000-0003-0209-2968Journal Article20230331Wind loads of high-rise buildings are a key parameter in architectural design. The magnitude and distribution characteristics of wind loads are of great importance for the safety and economy of structural design. The wind loads of high-rise buildings are quite different from those of monomer buildings. The wind-induced interference effect could significantly increase the local wind pressure of buildings, causing potential safety hazards for the main structure and enclosure structure. For the three common high-rise buildings, we adopted the wind tunnel test method to measure the surface pressure of each building. The corresponding Re number was 8.2×10<sup>6</sup>. This paper studied the shape coefficients, fluctuating wind pressure coefficients and base bending moment coefficient of each building with different wind direction angles and different spacing ratios, and the maximum value of each parameter and the corresponding working condition were statistically analyzed. The results showed that, under any wind direction angle, the fluctuating wind pressure coefficients on all sides of the building were affected by the spacing ratio, and the fluctuation range was large. When the wind angle was 180º, the fluctuating wind pressure coefficients on the sides of Building 1 were most affected by the slope ratio. At this wind angle, the maximum value was 0.43 at a slope ratio of 5.0, which was 65% different from the minimum. Partition shape coefficients of some sides and top surfaces changed significantly with the spacing ratio. When the spacing ratio was 5.0, the base bending moment coefficients in the downwind and crosswind directions reached their maximum values, and the wind direction angles where the maximum values of the base bending moment coefficients in the downwind direction were 40º and 50º, respectively, and the wind direction angle where the maximum value of the base bending moment coefficients in the crosswind direction was 10º. Due to the influence of the wind angle and the building spacing ratio, the wind loads on the facades of the pyramidal group of buildings varied greatly, and the wind-induced interference effect was evident. The wind load between the building facades in the three buildings was different, and the wind disturbance effect was evident. Therefore, the most unfavorable stress state and interference state of the structure should be comprehensively considered in the wind resistance design of the three buildings. The building spacing ratio should preferably be set to 3.0, and wind angles of 10º, 40º, and 50º should be avoided whenever possible.https://www.jafmonline.net/article_2290_ea0fde2f24fa7c1bad335da6ed7b8c00.pdfJournal of Applied Fluid Mechanics1735-3572161120230903A Unified Transformation Framework for Studying Various Situations of Vertical/Oblique Drop Impact on Horizontal/Inclined Stationary/Moving Flat Surfaces21152129229110.47176/jafm.16.11.1931ENE.AzadiDepartment of Aerospace Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, 11155-9161, Iran0000-0002-3452-7498M.Taeibi RahniDepartment of Aerospace Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, 11155-9161, Iran0000-0002-7875-5601Journal Article20230412There are various situations of drop impact on solid surfaces widely occurred in natural phenomenon or used in different industrial applications. However, comparing and classifying these drop impact situations is not easy due to different states of the parameters affecting drop impact dynamics. In this article, a unified transformation framework is proposed to study various situations of vertical/oblique drop impact on horizontal/inclined stationary/moving flat surfaces with/without a crossflow. This simple framework consists of a coordinate with normal and tangential axes on a horizontal stationary surface. For each drop impact situation, the drop velocity, gravitational acceleration, possible induced flow due to the moving surface, and possible crossflow are transformed into the framework. Comparing the transformed versions of considered drop impact situations facilitates identification of their physical similarities/differences and determines which situations (and under what conditions) lead to identical results and can be used interchangeably. Although common situations of drop impact on moving surfaces (having tangential component of surface velocity) lead to asymmetric drop spreading, the possibility of symmetric drop spreading on moving surfaces is demonstrated and analyzed using the proposed transformation framework. This interesting possibility means that for related production lines or experimental setups, where symmetrical drop spreading is required, the surface does not need to be stationary. In such applications<em>/</em>setups, the use of moving surfaces (rather than stationary surfaces) can considerably accelerate the symmetric drop impact process. Our simulation results of several of the considered drop impact situations well confirm the facilities/predictions of the proposed transformation framework.https://www.jafmonline.net/article_2291_358d3745e79aadde24fef82f6a57d27b.pdfJournal of Applied Fluid Mechanics1735-3572161120230903Analysis of Macroscopic Cavitation Characteristics of a Self-Excited Oscillating Cavitation Jet Nozzle21302141229210.47176/jafm.16.11.1923ENY.ZhaoSchool of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, ChinaG.LiGongQing Institute of Science and Technology, Gongqingcheng Shi, Jiangxi 332020, ChinaF.ZhaoResearch Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu Province, ChinaX.WangResearch Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu Province, ChinaW.XuSchool of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu Province, ChinaJournal Article20230417The self-excited oscillating cavitation jet nozzle (SEOCJN) serves as a crucial component for converting hydrostatic energy into dynamic pressure energy and ensuring optimal hydraulic and cavitation performance of cavitating jets. Thus, it is of crucial significance to understand the cavitation characteristics and the influence law of SEOCJN for its extensive industrial applications. This paper utilizes numerical simulation methods to analyze the dynamic process of cavitation initiation, development, and outlet cavitation performance of SEOCJN. It explores the effects of inlet pressure and flow rate on the frequency characteristics of SEOCJN, and establishes a mathematical relationship between self-excited oscillation frequency and outlet flow frequency. The results indicate that the self-excited oscillation nozzle has an inlet diameter (<em>D<sub>1</sub></em>) of 4.7 mm, an outlet diameter (<em>D<sub>2</sub></em>) of 12.2 mm, a length (<em>L</em>) of 52 mm, a chamber diameter (<em>D</em>) of 83 mm, an oscillation angle of 120°, and an inlet pressure (<em>P<sub>in</sub></em>) of 4.8 MPa. At these parameters, the frequency of the pulse jet reaches 830.01 Hz, with an internal flow period of approximately 0.0024 s. The maximum vapor volume fraction is found to be located 0.28 m from the outlet of the SEOCJN. Furthermore, the frequency of self-excited oscillation pulse increases with an increase in inlet pressure. These findings provide a theoretical basis for the industrial application of self-excited oscillation cavitation jet nozzles. https://www.jafmonline.net/article_2292_de8d29622003ed85cb32cbf29508e632.pdfJournal of Applied Fluid Mechanics1735-3572161120230903Investigation of Rheological and Geometric Properties Effect on Nonlinear Behaviour of Fluid Viscous Dampers21422157229310.47176/jafm.16.11.1940ENM. A.Bouayad AghaEOLE, Civil Engineering Department/, University of Tlemcen, Tlemcen, BP 230 13000, AlgeriaA. A.RasEOLE, Civil Engineering Department/, University of Tlemcen, Tlemcen, BP 230 13000, AlgeriaK.HamdaouiEOLE, Civil Engineering Department/, University of Tlemcen, Tlemcen, BP 230 13000, AlgeriaJournal Article20230420Global approval of the use of fluid viscous dampers to control the buildings response against dynamic loadings is growing. The idea behind incorporating additional dampers is that they will reduce most of the energy that is transmitted to the building during shaking event. The objective of this work is to identify and enhance the design parameters that control the nonlinear behaviour of fluid viscous damper subjected to sinusoidal excitation. For this, a numerical model of the flow inside the dissipater has been carried out based on finite volume method. A novel approach has been adopted to simulate elastic behaviour of the fluid, taking into account its compressibility by using the Murnaghan equation of state. A comparison between the calculations of the proposed model and the experimental tests was carried out. The model proved to be sufficiently accurate. A fluid flow analysis was then conducted to fully understand the internal mechanism of the damper. A parametric study was then performed by varying aspects such as dimensions, geometric relationships between components and fluid properties in order to better understand their effect on the non-linear behaviour of the device. The results highlight the relationship between the parameters governing the shear thinning behaviour of the fluid and the non-linearity exponent of the damper. This makes it possible to better control the non-linear behaviour of the device by selecting the appropriate silicone oil and the appropriate geometric dimensions of its components.https://www.jafmonline.net/article_2293_1c0bdfffb186451d93d908d140de0d18.pdfJournal of Applied Fluid Mechanics1735-3572161120230903Influence Analysis of Impeller-Guide Vane Matching on Energy and Pressure Pulsation in a Tubular Pump Device21582174229410.47176/jafm.16.11.1973ENZ.LinCollege of Hydraulic Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, ChinaF.YangCollege of Hydraulic Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, ChinaJiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Conservancy and Power Engineering, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, China0000-0001-5109-1772X.XuJiangsu Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210029, ChinaX.JinCollege of Hydraulic Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, ChinaM.ChenJiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Conservancy and Power Engineering, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, ChinaHuaian Water Conservancy Survey and Design, Huaian, Jiangsu, 223005, ChinaG.XuJiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Conservancy and Power Engineering, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, ChinaJournal Article20230430Tubular pump devices offer advantages such as low hydraulic losses, a simple structure, and easy maintenance. They find extensive application in areas such as irrigation, flood control, and water diversion. The performance and security of the pump are directly impacted by the contact between the impeller and guide vane. The matching relationship between the number of impeller blades and guide vanes significantly influences this interaction in tubular pump devices. To explore this impact, a Very-Large-Eddy Simulation turbulence model was employed to simulate the 3D flow fields of six different number matching relationships in a shaft tubular pump device. The analysis focused on the energy performance of the different schemes, the flow distribution of the guide vanes, and the velocity circulation at the guide vanes’ outlet. Entropy theory and energy gradient theory were employed to understand how the number matching relationship influences energy performance. Additionally, pressure pulsations were analyzed at the impeller and guide vanes for different matching configurations. The results indicate that although increasing the number of impeller blades can lead to higher water circulation, increased energy, and potentially unstable water flow, an increase in impeller blades number results in improved flow distribution in each guide vane groove, leading to an overall enhancement in the efficiency of the pump device. Similarly, increasing the number of guide vanes may increase the non-uniformity of the guide vane flow rate, but it also enhances the ability of the guide vanes to regulate water circulation and recover energy, thereby benefiting the overall efficiency.https://www.jafmonline.net/article_2294_ccbc1ca2fdd0fe3832912d89f23cf143.pdfJournal of Applied Fluid Mechanics1735-3572161120230903Two Dimensional Vortex Shedding from a Rotating Cluster of Cylinders21752188229510.47176/jafm.16.11.1773ENB. B.NdebeleCSIR, Department of Defence, and Security, Pretoria, Gauteng, 0001, South Africa0000-0001-9569-265XM. A.GledhillDepartment of Mechanical, Industrial, and Aeronautical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2000,
South Africa0000-0001-6171-0290Journal Article20230131The dynamics of two-dimensional vortex shedding from a rotating cluster of three cylinders was investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD). The cluster was formed from three circles with equal diameters in mutual contact and allowed to rotate about an axis passing through the cluster centroid. While immersed in an incompressible fluid with Reynolds number of 100, the cluster was allowed to rotate at non-dimensionalised rotation rates (Ω) between 0 and 1. The rotation rates were non-dimensionalised using the free-stream velocity and the cluster characteristic diameter, the latter being equal to the diameter of the circle circumscribing the cluster. CFD simulations were performed using StarCCM+. Dynamic Mode Decomposition based on the two-dimensional vorticity field was used to decompose the field into its fundamental mode-shapes. It was then possible to relate the mode-shapes to lift and drag. Transverse and longitudinal mode-shapes corresponded to lift and drag, respectively. Lift–drag polars showed a more complex pattern dependent on Ω in which the flow fields could be classified into three regimes: Ω less than 0.3, greater than 0.5, and between 0.3 and 0.5. In general, the polars formed open curves in contrast to those of static cylinders, which were closed. However, some cases, such as Ω = 0.01, 0.22, and 0.28, formed closed curves. Whether a lift-drag polar was closed or open was deduced to be determined by the ratio of Strouhal numbers calculated using lift and drag time series, with closed curves forming when the ratio is an integer.https://www.jafmonline.net/article_2295_5fcead58dbfbcf0ba0b6e20053b85320.pdfJournal of Applied Fluid Mechanics1735-3572161120230903Effect of Blade Trimming Length on the Performance of Marine Centrifugal Pump21892205229610.47176/jafm.16.11.1936ENL. J.ZhaiShanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, Shanghai 200072, ChinaH. X.ChenShanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, Shanghai 200072, ChinaQ.GuShanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, Shanghai 200072, ChinaZ.MaChinese Ship Scientific Research Center, Shanghai, Shanghai 200011, ChinaJournal Article20230419To study the hydrodynamic characteristics of blade trimming length in centrifugal pumps, Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) with nonlinear eddy viscosity was utilized to conduct unsteady calculations on the centrifugal pump. A comprehensive examination of the fluid dynamic properties of the centrifugal pump, including external features, flow conditions, and pressure fluctuations, was carried out. By applying the theory of entropy production, the areas of high energy loss within the centrifugal pump were identified, and the correlations between local entropy production, energy loss, and unsteady flow in different areas with varying blade trimming lengths were analyzed. The results indicate that with the increase in blade trimming length, under rated flow conditions, the head decreases by 1.8%, 3.2%, and 5.7% for different blade trimming lengths, respectively, compared to normal impellers. Similarly, the efficiency decreases by 0.5%, 0.8%, and 1.0% for different blade trimming lengths, respectively. Similar trends were observed under other working conditions as well. As the degree of blade trimming increases, the irreversible losses after the failure of the centrifugal pump also increase significantly, indicating that the flow inside the centrifugal pump becomes disorder. Blade trimming leads to a disorderly fluid flow inside the centrifugal pump, causing an increase in the radial force during operation, which in turn leads to an increase in vibration amplitude and affects its operational stability. Blade trimming failure has a significant impact on the frequency and amplitude of pressure pulsation, resulting in abnormal pressure pulsation and abnormal vibration of the centrifugal pump. Therefore, early warning and diagnosis of blade trimming can be achieved through pressure pulsation monitoring.https://www.jafmonline.net/article_2296_df4014ab7d3e0ca99aa6c22a17e5d14a.pdfJournal of Applied Fluid Mechanics1735-3572161120230903Three-Dimensional Optimization of Blade Lean and Sweep for an Axial Compressor to Improve the Engine Performance22062218229710.47176/jafm.16.11.1857ENM.Heidarian ShahriAmirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, IranA.MadadiAmirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, IranM.BoroomandAmirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, IranJournal Article20230310Nowadays, optimization methods have been considered as a practical tool to improve the performance of turbo-machines. For this purpose, the numerical study of the aerodynamic flow of the NASA Rotor-67 axial compressor has been investigated, and the results of this three-dimensional simulation show good agreement with experimental data. Then, the blade stacking line is changed using lean and sweep for Rotor-67 to improve the compressor performance. The third-order polynomial is selected to generate the lean and sweep changes from the hub to the shroud. The compressor flow field is solved by a Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes solver. The genetic algorithm, coupled with the artificial neural networks, is implemented to find the optimum values for blade lean and sweep. Considering the three objective functions of pressure ratio, mass flow rate, and isentropic efficiency, the optimized rotor is obtained using the optimization algorithm. Two geometries are obtained using the optimization algorithm. The results of the optimized compressor include improving the isentropic efficiency, pressure ratio, and mass flow equal to 0.57%, 0.93%, and 1.8%, respectively. After compressor optimization, the effect of the changes in the compressor performance parameters is studied on a single spool turbojet engine. The engine is modeled by analyzing the Brayton thermodynamic cycle of the assumed turbojet engine under design point operating conditions. Results show that for the best test case, the engine with the optimized rotor, the thrust, and SFC are improved by 1.86% and 0.21%, respectively.https://www.jafmonline.net/article_2297_16bb57a3ae59be3ae633b1acae658524.pdfJournal of Applied Fluid Mechanics1735-3572161120230903Numerical Study of High-Speed Vertical Water Entry of Hollow Projectiles with Different Aperture Sizes and Velocities22192234229810.47176/jafm.16.11.1961ENH. W.FanNational Key Laboratory of Transient Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology 1, Nanjing 210094, ChinaZ. G.HuangNational Key Laboratory of Transient Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology 1, Nanjing 210094, ChinaH.WangNational Key Laboratory of Transient Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology 1, Nanjing 210094, ChinaZ. H.ChenNational Key Laboratory of Transient Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology 1, Nanjing 210094, ChinaX. Y.LiuNational Key Laboratory of Transient Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology 1, Nanjing 210094, ChinaF. J.XiaoSchool of mechanical engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, ChinaR. X.QiuSchool of mechanical engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, ChinaJournal Article20230428The hollow projectile is a new type of projectile that has complex water entry hydrodynamics characteristics and has attracted significant attention in recent years. As such, it is important to investigate the effects of different entry velocities and aperture diameters on the cavity morphology, cavitation, dynamics, and motion characteristics of hollow projectiles when entering water at high speeds. In this study, four stages of an open cavity, cavity stretching, cavity closure, and cavity contraction in the water entry processes of a hollow projectile at 50–200 m/s and four aperture diameter projectiles at 100 m/s were studied using the volume of fluid (VOF), realizable k-ε turbulence, and Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model. With an increase in the speed, the depth of the cavity closure increases, thereby advancing the closure time. The timing of the surface closure at 50 m/s is clearly different from that at 100–200 m/s. Cavitation is not obvious and is near the cavity wall at 50 m/s, although the entire cavity is almost filled with vapor at 100–200 m/s. The friction resistance has two step points when impacting the water surface and entering the water completely. As the velocity increases or the aperture ratio reduces, the splash is higher, the cavity volume is larger, the cavitation phenomenon is more obvious, the cavity closure time is delayed, and the frictional resistance of the projectile is greater. The results of this study can guide the production and application of hollow projectiles in the future. https://www.jafmonline.net/article_2298_359887ead537eadc935d48f30ac28460.pdfJournal of Applied Fluid Mechanics1735-3572161120230903Numerical Analysis of Transient Vortex Formation at the Outlet of a Tank Containing Gas-Liquid Phases22352248229910.47176/jafm.16.11.1942ENM.MohseniDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Qom University of Technology, Qom 37181 46645, Iran0000-0003-2604-9286M. K.DomfehEarth Observation Research and Innovation Centre (EORIC), University of Energy and Natural Resources, P. O. Box 214, Sunyani, GhanaJournal Article20230415One of the basic phenomena when a liquid leaves a tank is the formation of vortices. This phenomenon can have a significant impact on the liquid mass remaining in the tank and the ingress of air and bubbles into the system. As a result, the performance of the system can be disturbed. The purpose of this study is to numerically investigate the effect of gas pressure on vortex formation and critical height. It also verifies the relationships presented for turbulent viscosity. In addition, the near-wall behavior of the analytical relationships proposed for the tangential velocity is revised based on the boundary layer theory. Some common effective factors such as angular velocity, discharge time, and liquid height are also investigated. The volume of fluid (VOF) model and the Transitional SST k-ω turbulence model were used to solve the two-phase turbulent flow. The results show that increasing the gas pressure from 1 to 5 bar and its direct impact on the liquid surface significantly accelerates the formation of the vortex and the critical height. This phenomenon causes the air core to reach the inlet of the outlet pipe approximately 7 seconds earlier after the start of the liquid discharge. As a result, much more liquid mass remains in the tank. The increase in the angular velocity of the reference frame from 0.1 to 1 rad/s also causes the critical height to be reached much earlier and the remaining liquid mass to increase by 32 kg. In addition, the amount and variations of turbulent viscosity differ significantly from the semi-empirical constants, limiting their use to certain flows. https://www.jafmonline.net/article_2299_9c9e7e040efb594ccfb9d455207fb62c.pdfJournal of Applied Fluid Mechanics1735-3572161120230903Comparative Study of OpenFOAM Solvers on Separation Pattern and Separation Pattern Transition in Overexpanded Single Expansion Ramp Nozzle22492262230010.47176/jafm.16.11.1751ENT.YuSchool of Aeronautics, Chongqing Jiaotong University, 400074, Chongqing, ChinaThe Green Aerotechnics Research Institute of Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Green Aviation energy and power, 401120, Chongqing, ChinaY.YuSchool of Aeronautics, Chongqing Jiaotong University, 400074, Chongqing, ChinaThe Green Aerotechnics Research Institute of Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Green Aviation energy and power, 401120, Chongqing, ChinaNanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Aerospace Power System, 210016, Nanjing, ChinaY. P.MaoThe Green Aerotechnics Research Institute of Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Green Aviation energy and power, 401120, Chongqing, ChinaY. L.YangSchool of Aeronautics, Chongqing Jiaotong University, 400074, Chongqing, ChinaThe Green Aerotechnics Research Institute of Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Green Aviation energy and power, 401120, Chongqing, ChinaS. L.XuThe Green Aerotechnics Research Institute of Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Green Aviation energy and power, 401120, Chongqing, ChinaJournal Article20230106Flow separation in overexpanded single expansion ramp nozzles (SERN) involves complex phenomena, such as shock waves, expansion waves, turbulent boundary layers, and shear layers. Computational fluid dynamics plays a crucial role in studying unsteady flow behaviour in supersonic nozzles, allowing for an investigation into the dynamic flow field characteristics. However, the application of OpenFOAM as a numerical tool for studying SERN in the field of compressible flows, particularly in the overexpansion state where the flow field characteristics are more complex, has received relatively less attention. In this study, the flow field characteristics of an overexpanded SERN under different turbulence models are investigated through a combination of experiments and numerical calculations. The qualitative and quantitative predictive performance of two compressible flow solvers in OpenFOAM, namely, rhoCentralFOAM and sonicFOAM, are compared in terms of flow separation pattern and separation pattern transitions within the overexpanded SERN. The ability of rhoCentralFOAM and sonicFOAM to accurately predict complex flow states is evaluated. Results indicate that the numerical simulations conducted using rhoCentralFOAM and sonicFOAM successfully capture flow separation, separated shock waves, separated bubbles and shear layers for two types of restricted shock separation patterns at the same nozzle pressure ratio (NPR), demonstrating agreement with experimental results. However, sonicFOAM initiates the transition in the separation pattern 0.0773 NPR earlier than rhoCentralFOAM during the whole separation pattern transition process of the SERN. The transition process in sonicFOAM lasts longer and exhibits a greater variation in NPR. SonicFOAM fails to accurately predict certain aspects, such as the pressure rise after the separation bubble, the reattachment shock wave, and tends to overestimat the length of the separation shock length. Consequently, sonicFOAM cannot be recommended as a suitable solver for accurately capturing the separation pattern of an overexpanded nozzle. https://www.jafmonline.net/article_2300_70f5efd890d34c42efbd8f1b6b9616b8.pdfJournal of Applied Fluid Mechanics1735-3572161120230903Numerical Investigation of Optimal Hydrodynamic Performance by Changing the Orifice Ratio and Relative Opening of a Land-Fixed Rectangular-based OWC22632276230110.47176/jafm.16.11.1799ENS.RanjanDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, NIT, Silchar, Assam - 788 010, India0000-0003-2933-0639P.DebRoyDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, NIT, Silchar, Assam - 788 010, IndiaJournal Article20230205The energy that can be extracted from the ocean is inexhaustible. An oscillating water column (OWC) is a wave energy converter that extracts this energy. A numerical investigation has been conducted by altering relative opening (<em>α</em>) and orifice ratio (<em>τ</em>) to assess the maximal energy of a land-fixed rectangular-based OWC model in a nonlinear wave field. The power of OWC has also been evaluated by the wave steepness (<em>H/L</em>) alteration. The numeric analysis has been imposed to obtain the optimal power using Fluent software in a three-dimensional tank. Validation of the present numeric model’s result correlates with the printed empirical data. The Finite Volume Method<strong> (</strong>FVM) solves RANS equations, and the relevant waves are generated at the inlet of the numerical tank by the inlet velocity approach. The efficiency (<em>η</em>) increases with relative openings (<em>α</em>) increase. The efficiency (<em>η</em>) decreases with wave steepness (<em>H/L</em>) increase. The <em>η</em> reaches the optimum shown in the study at <em>H/L</em> = 0.02 and <em>τ</em> = 1.03% for entire values of <em>α</em>. The excellent energy of around 71.3% is attained at α =75% and <em>H/L</em> = 0.02. This study is a highly relevant source of information that finds the optimal efficiency of a land-fixed rectangular base OWC and gives prior knowledge of the performance of OWC before the real-life experiment. https://www.jafmonline.net/article_2301_42ccd15a9952240325ad6249a3557e26.pdfJournal of Applied Fluid Mechanics1735-3572161120230903A Wall Effects and Means of Controlling the Evolution of Swirling Flows with Vortex Breakdown22772289230210.47176/jafm.16.11.1767ENA.MezianeDynamique des Moteurs et Vibroacoustique Laboratory, M’Hamed Bougara Boumerdes University, AlgeriaM.HachemiEnergétique, Mécanique et Ingénieries Laboratory, M’Hamed Bougara Boumerdes University, AlgeriaM.KessalGéniePhysique des Hydrocarbures Laboratory, M’Hamed Bougara Boumerdes University, AlgeriaM.ImoulaDynamique des Moteurs et Vibroacoustique Laboratory, M’Hamed Bougara Boumerdes University, AlgeriaJournal Article20230120This paper investigates numerically the bubble-type vortex breakdown apparition in the case of closed rotating flows of a viscous, axisymmetric, and incompressible fluid. First, a truncated conical/cylindrical cavity of spherical end disks is used to simulate and analyze the vortex structure under rigid surface conditions. The geometric effects of the enclosure are also studied. Vortex breakdown is demonstrated beyond the lower disk rotation rate threshold by introducing the no-slip condition imposed on the upper wall. The objective is to explore ways of controlling the evolution of this physical event by modifying the confinement conditions upstream of the vortex rupture. Particular attention is also paid to the effective kinematic viscosity, thermal diffusivity and geometric control of recirculation zones on the axis of rotation (axial bubble type). The second geometry consists of a spherical annulus formed by two concentric hemispheres in differential rotation under plat-free surface conditions. The results show that rotation of the inner hemisphere induces a vortex bubble on the polar axis. In contrast, the outer hemisphere rotation induces a toroidal vortex on the equator.https://www.jafmonline.net/article_2302_31054c5296c22ef06607dfcfd5a828bb.pdfJournal of Applied Fluid Mechanics1735-3572161120230903Numerical Simulation of Underwater Supersonic Jet of Vehicle with Shell-Shaped Flow Control Structure22902299230310.47176/jafm.16.11.1874ENC.RuixiangSchool of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, ChinaX.MuyaoShanghai Space Propulsion Technology Research Institute, Shanghai 201109, ChinaW.YingSchool of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, ChinaY.ChaoShanghai Space Propulsion Technology Research Institute, Shanghai 201109, ChinaY.BinSchool of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, ChinaL.ShipengSchool of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, ChinaJournal Article20230326When the underwater vehicle engine operates under the condition of over-expansion, the violent pulsation of the flow field pressure at the rear of the nozzle can cause violent fluctuations in engine thrust, leading to engine instability. In order to improve the engine's stability, this study drew inspiration from the wave attenuation characteristics of the shell-shaped surface texture structure and added a multi-layer shell-shaped texture structure to the rear wall to reduce pressure fluctuations in the flow field at the rear of the nozzle . Based on the numerical simulation method, the effects of different bionic shell-shaped structures on jet morphology, wall pressure and engine thrust were compared and analyzed. The results show that the multi-layer bionic shell-shaped texture structure can effectively inhibit the occurrence of periodic phenomena such as bulge, necking, and return stroke in the rear flow field, so as to effectively reduce the pressure fluctuation in the rear flow field of the nozzle. In addition, when the momentum thrust is almost unchanged, it is found through calculations that during the initial stage of the jet, the suppression of thrust is not significant. After 0.005 seconds, the oscillation amplitude of the combined force of pressure difference thrust and back pressure thrust decreased by 22%, and the oscillation amplitude of the total thrust decreased by 20%.https://www.jafmonline.net/article_2303_f0db08051d52cd22c23b70a394c44e45.pdf