Upper-Convected Maxwell Fluid Flow with Variable Thermo-Physical Properties over a Melting Surface Situated in Hot Environment Subject to Thermal Stratification


Department of Mathematical Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, West Africa.


An upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid flow over a melting surface situated in hot environment is studied. The influence of melting heat transfer and thermal stratification are properly accounted for by modifying the classical boundary condition of temperature to account for both. It is assumed that the ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces is high enough for boundary layer approximation to be valid. The corresponding influence of exponentially space dependent internal heat generation on viscosity and thermal conductivity of UCM is properly considered. The dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of UCM are temperature dependent. Classical temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity models are modified to suit the case of both melting heat transfer and ther- mal stratification. The governing non-linear partial differential equations describing the problem are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and completed the solution numerically using the Runge-Kutta method along with shooting technique (RK4SM). The numerical procedure is validated by comparing the solutions of RK4SM with that of MATLAB based bvp4c. The results reveal that increase in stratification parameter corresponds to decrease in the heat energy entering into the fluid domain from freestream and this significantly reduces the overall temperature and temperature gradient of UCM fluid as it flows over a melting surface. The transverse velocity, longitudinal velocity and temperature of UCM are increasing func- tion of temperature dependent viscous and thermal conductivity parameters. At a constant value of melting parameter, the local skin-friction coefficient and heat transfer rate increases with an increase in Deborah number.