Effects of Temperature on the Wave Soldering of Printed Circuit Boards: CFD Modeling Approach


1 School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia.

2 Faculty of Engineering Technology (FETech), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Level 1, Block S2, UniCITI Alam Campus, Sungai Chuchuh, 02100, Padang Besar, Perlis, Malaysia.

3 Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

4 Soil Instruments (M) Sdn Bhd, No. 12, Jln Utarid u5/14, Seksyen u5, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.


ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of temperature on the wave soldering of printed circuit boards (PCBs) using three-dimensional finite volume analysis. A computational solder pot model consisting of a six-blade rotational propeller was developed and meshed using tetrahedral elements. The leaded molten solder (Sn63Pb37) distribution and PCB wetting profile were determined using the volume of fluid technique in the fluid flow solver, FLUENT. In this study, the effects of five different molten solder temperatures (456 K, 473 K, 523 K, 583 K, and 643 K) on the wave soldering of a 70 mm × 146 mm PCB were considered. The effects of temperature on wetting area, wetting profile, velocity vector, and full wetting time were likewise investigated. Molten solder temperature significantly affected the wetting time and distribution of PCBs. The molten solder temperature at 523 K demonstrated desirable wetting distribution and yielded a stable fountain profile and was therefore considered the best temperature in this study. The simulation results were substantiated by the experimental results.