Thermal Enhancement Effects of Buoyancy-Driven Heat Transfer of Hybrid Nanofluid Confined in a Tilted U-Shaped Cavity

Document Type : Regular Article


1 Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2 Mathematics Division, Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

3 Mathematics Education Department, Universitas Islam Negeri Sultan Syarif Kasim, 28293, Pekanbaru, Indonesia



In this manuscript, the analysis of buoyancy-driven heat transfer of copper-alumina/water hybrid nanofluid in a U-shaped enclosure under the influence of cavity inclination is extensively studied numerically. The dimensionless governing equations are formed by using dimensionless variables. The domain is discretized to a finite number of the Lagrange three-node triangular element, and the finite element method is employed with the Galerkin-weighted residual algorithm to compute and solve the problem. The Newton-Raphson method is employed as a convergence criterion for each iteration. Numerical and experimental validation of the previously published data is conducted with the present results to verify the stability and reliability of the numerical procedure and results. The effect of the lid tilting angle on the heat transfer performance of the enclosure is extensively explored in the manuscript. The streamlines, isotherms, local and average Nusselt numbers as well as the vertical and horizontal velocity of the fluid are plotted for a variation of the Rayleigh number up to 106. The analysis of the effect of fluid velocity on the fluid flow and thermal distribution pattern are discussed with relation to the overall heat transfer capability within the domain. It is found that hybrid nanofluid enhances the heat transfer rate within the enclosure. The highest heat transfer performance is at an inclination angle of 40°≤Θ≤ 60°. The results presented in the manuscript will be useful in the manufacturing processes involving electronics such as laptops and smartphones.


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Volume 15, Issue 2 - Serial Number 63
March and April 2022
Pages 337-348
  • Received: 24 April 2021
  • Revised: 17 August 2021
  • Accepted: 15 September 2021
  • First Publish Date: 29 January 2022