CFD-DEM-based Numerical Simulation of Erosion Characteristic of Multistage Pressure Relief String Regulating Valve

Document Type : Regular Article


1 The Flow Induced Corrosion Institution, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China

2 Key Laboratory of Fluid Transmission Technology of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China



The regulating valve applied in coal liquefaction systems becomes seriously worn and its service life decreases because of a significant difference in pressure and solid–liquid flow. This study proposes a wear-resistant multistage pressure relief string-regulating valve, and examines the characteristics of depressurization of flow and the erosion of its throttle element by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and the discrete element method (DEM) combined with the E/CRC (Erosion/Corrosion Center) erosion model of the WC-Co coating. The influence of different sizes of the opening of the valve and varying differences in pressure on the characteristics of erosion is analyzed. Moreover, properties of collisions between particles (such as the particle impact velocity and mass per second) are used to represent and analyze the characteristics of erosion. The numerical results show that the cylinder, flat, and bevel of the valve are at high risk of erosion. The characteristics of erosion of the multistage pressure relief string-regulating valve studied in this paper can provide a reference for optimizing methods of erosion prevention.


Akhshik, S., M. Behzad and M. Rajabi (2016). CFD-DEM simulation of the hole cleaning process in a deviated well drilling: The effects of particle shape. Particuology 25(02), 72-82.##
Akhshik, S. and M. Rajabi (2021). Simulation of proppant transport at intersection of hydraulic fracture and natural fracture of wellbores using CFD-DEM. Particuology 63, 112-124.##
Bernt, O. J. and O. S. Bengt (1972). Determination of young's modulus and poisson’s ratio for WC-Co alloys by the finite element method. Materials Science and Engineering 9, 217-222.##
Cao, L., S. Liu, P. Hu and H. Si (2020). The influence of governing valve opening on the erosion characteristics of solid particle in steam turbine. Engineering Failure Analysis 118, No.104929.##
Charles, A. L., K. Chelvakumar, C. E. Brennen and A. J. Acosta (1981). Synfuel systems. a review of letdown devices and other multiphase flow problems. california institute of technology.##
Chen, J., Y. Wang, X. Li, R. He and Y. Chen (2015). Erosion prediction of liquid-particle two-phase flow in pipeline elbows via CFD–DEM coupling method. Powder Technology 275, 182-187.##
Chen, X. Z. and J. W. Wang (2014). A comparison of two-fluid model, dense discrete particle model and CFD-DEM method for modeling impinging gas-solid flows. Powder Technology 254, 94–102.##
Chu, Y., Z. Yuan and W. Chang (2020). Research on the Dynamic Erosion Wear Characteristics of a Nozzle Flapper Pressure Servo Valve Used in Aircraft Brake System. Mathematical Problems in Engineering.##
Darihaki, F., E. Hajidavalloo, A. Ghasemzadeh and G. A. Safian (2017). Erosion prediction for slurry flow in choke geometry. Wear 372-373, 42-53.##
Du, H., Q. B. Wu, H. Chen and L. Wang (2014). The Design and Analysis of Novel High-Flow Filling Valve based on Multi-Stage Hydraulic Resistance and Compound Flow Channels. International Journal of Control & Automation 7(9), 433-450.##
Jin, H., Z. Zheng, G. Ou, L. Zhang, J. Rao, G. Shu and C. Wang (2015). Failure analysis of a high-pressure differential regulating valve in coal liquefaction. Engineering Failure Analysis 55, 15-130.##
Johnson, K. L. (1985). Contact Mechanics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.##
Krishnan, R. P.  (1984). Assessment of slurry pressure letdown valve and slurry block valve technology for direct coal liquefaction demonstration and pioneer commercial plants.##
Landau, L. D. and E. M. Lifshitz (1970). Theory of Elasticity. Pergamon Press, New York.##
Lin, Z., X. Sun, T. Yu, Y. Zhang, Y. L. Li and Z. Zhu (2020). Gas–solid two-phase flow and erosion calculation of gate valve based on the CFD-DEM model. Powder Technology 366, 395-407.##
Liu, B., J. Zhao and J. Qian (2017). Numerical analysis of cavitation erosion and particle erosion in butterfly valve. Engineering Failure Analysis 80, 312-324.##
Liu, J. G., G. S. Wang, T. H. Peng, and S. Q. Jiang (2019). Numerical Simulation of Solid Particle Erosion in Aluminum Alloy Spool Valve. Mathematical Problems in Engineering 2, 1-16.##
Liu, X. F., J. F. Zhou, S. Q. Gao, H. L. Zhao, Z. Y. Liao, H. Z. Jin and C. Wang (2022). Study on the Impact Wear Characteristics of Catalyst. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 15(1), 221-230.##
Mansouri, A. (2016). A Combined CFD-Experimental Method for Developing an EROSION Equation for both Gas-Sand and Liquid-Sand Flows, PhD Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tulsa.##
McLaury, B. S. (1996). Predicting solid particle erosion resulting from turbulent fluctuations in oilfield geometries, PhD Dissertation, Mechanical Engineering, University of Tulsa.##
Messa, G. V., G. Ferrarese and S. Malavasi (2015).  A mixed Euler–Euler/Euler–Lagrange approach to erosion prediction. Wear 342-343, 138-153.##
Mindlin, R. D. (1949). Compliance of Elastic Bodies in Contact. Journal of Applied Mechanics 16, 259-268.##
Morsi, S. A. and A. J. Alexander, (1972). An investigation of particle trajectories in two-phase flow systems. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 55(2), 193-208.##
Paggiaro, R., J. D. Friedemann, E. Gharaibah and Y. Zhang (2013). Prediction of Sand Erosion in Choke Valves - CFD Model Development and Validation against Experiment. offshore technology conference Brasil.##
Qian, J. Y., M. Zhang, L. N. Lei, F. Q. Chen, L. L. Chen, L. Wei and Z.J. Jin (2016). Mach number analysis on multi-stage perforated plates in high pressure reducing valve. Energy Conversion and Management 119, 81-90.##
Varga, M., C. Goniva, K. Adam and E. Badisch (2013).  Combined experimental and numerical approach for wear prediction in feed pipes. Tribology International 65(3), 200-206.##
Wang, C., A. Q. Duan and K. N. Bi (2021). Experiment on Erosion Wear Characteristic of NiWC35 Coating and Sintered WC under High-Speed Impacting of Solid Particle. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 14(4), 1125-1136.##
Wang, G. R., F. Chu, S. Tao, L. Jiang and H. Zhu (2015). Optimization design for throttle valve of managed pressure drilling based on CFD erosion simulation and response surface methodology. Wear 338-339, 114-121.##
Wang, H. M., Y. Zhao, J. X. Wang, X.S. Kong, H. Liu, K.L. Li and X. F. Wang (2016). Numerical simulation of flow characteristics for a labyrinth passage in a pressure valve.  Journal of Hydrodynamics, Ser. B, 28(4), 629-636.##
Yan, H., J. Li, C. Cai and Y. Ren (2020). Numerical Investigation of Erosion Wear in the Hydraulic Amplifier of the Deflector Jet Servo Valve. Applied Sciences 10(4), 1299.##
Zheng, S., M. Luo, K. Xu, X. Li and Z. Liu (2019). Case study: Erosion of an axial flow regulating valve in a solid-gas pipe flow. Wear 434-435, No.20952.##
Zheng, Z., G. Ou, Y. Yi, G. Shu and H. Ye (2016). A combined numerical-experiment investigation on the failure of a pressure relief valve in coal liquefaction. Engineering Failure Analysis 60, 326-340.##
Zhou, J. W., Y. Liu, S. Y. Liu, C. L. Du and J. P. Li (2017). Effects of particle shape and swirling intensity on elbow erosion in dilute-phase pneumatic conveying. Wear 380-381, 66-77. ##