Self-similarity Characteristics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Wakes

Document Type : Regular Article


1 School of New Energy and Power Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070, China

2 State Power Investment Corporation Beijing Electric Power Co., Ltd., Beijing 100029, China

3 Lanzhou Railway Bureau Jiayuguan Vehicle Section, Jiayuguan 735100, China



Wake generated by wind turbine can greatly influence the performance of downstream turbine. To better understand the wake self-similarity characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT), the shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model with the addition of the γ-Reθ transition model is performed to model a two-blade VAWT at different operating conditions. The simulated blade surface pressure and torque are compared with existing experimental results for validation. Results show that, the simulated results after considering the transition model are more consistent with the experimental results. Analysis of the flow field shows that the average streamwise velocity of the wake in the horizontal plane under different tip speed ratios is asymmetry, but symmetric in the vertical plane. Further analysis indicates that, at different downstream positions, the non-dimensional streamwise velocity deficit in the vertical plane remains self-similarity and basically coincides with the Gaussian distribution curve exclude the wake edges. In addition, the larger the tip speed ratio, the easier streamwise velocity deficit reach self-similarity state at downstream of the VAWT. The results of this study will be helpful to establish the wake model of the VAWT.


Almohammadi, K. M., D. B. Ingham, L. Ma and M. Pourkashanian (2014). 2-D-CFD analysis of the effect of trailing edge shape on the performance of a straight-blade vertical axis wind turbine. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy 6(1), 228-235.##
Arpino, F., M. Scungio and G. Cortellessa (2018). Numerical performance assessment of an innovative Darrieus-style vertical axis wind turbine with auxiliary straight blades. Energy Conversion and Management, 171, 769-777.##
Belkheir, N., R. Dizene and S. Khelladi (2012). A numerical simulation of turbulence flow around a blade profile of HAWT rotor in moving pulse. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 5(1), 1-9.##
Dahmouni, A. W., M. M. Oueslati and S. B. Nasrallah (2017). Experimental investigation of tip vortex meandering in the near wake of a horizontal-axis wind turbine. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 10(6), 1679-1688.##
Ghosal, S. and M. M. Rogers (1997). A numerical study of self-similarity in a turbulent plane wake using large-eddy simulation. Physics of Fluids 9(6), 1729-1739.##
Hohman, T. C., L. Martinelli and A. J. Smits (2020). The effect of blade geometry on the structure of vertical axis wind turbine wakes. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 207, 104328.##
Kabardin, I. K., I. V. Naumov and V. L. Okulov (2017). An investigation of a self-similarity for local vorticity and velocity components in tip vortex cores of a rotor wake. Journal of physics:  Conference series 899, 022008.##
Kabir, I. F. S. A. and E. Y. K. Ng (2019). Effect of different atmospheric boundary layers on the wake characteristics of NREL phase VI wind turbine. Renewable energy 130, 1185-1197.##
Lam, H. F. and H. Y. Peng (2016). Study of wake characteristics of a vertical axis wind turbine by two-and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations. Renewable Energy 90, 386-398.##
Li, C., S. Y. Zhu, Y. L. Xu, and Y. Q. Xiao (2013). 2.5D large eddy simulation of vertical axis wind turbine in consideration of high angle of attack flow. Renewable Energy 51, 317-330.##
Li, Q. A., T. Maeda, Y. Kamada, Murata, J., T. Kawabata, K. Shimizu, T. Ogasawara, A. Nakia and T. Kasuya (2016). Wind tunnel and numerical study of a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine in three-dimensional analysis (Part I: For predicting aerodynamic loads and performance). Energy 106, 443-452.##
Lyu, P., W. L. Chen, H. Li and L. Shen (2019). A numerical study on the development of self-similarity in a wind turbine wake using an improved pseudo-spectral large-eddy simulation solver. Energies 12(4), 643.##
Maeda, T., Y. Kamada, K. Shimizu, T. Ogasawara, A. Nakai and T. Kasuya (2017). Effect of rotor aspect ratio and solidity on a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine in three-dimensional analysis by the panel method. Energy 121, 1-9.##
Menter, F. R., R. B. Langtry, S. R. Likki, Y. B. Suzen, P. G. Huang and S. Völker (2006). A correlation-based transition model using local variables—part I: model formulation. Journal of Turbomachinery 128, 413-422.##
Mo, J. O., A. Choudhry, M. Arjomandi and Y. H. Lee (2013). Large eddy simulation of the wind turbine wake characteristics in the numerical wind tunnel model. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 112, 11-24.##
Noura, B., I. Dobrev, R. Kerfah, F. Massouh and S. Khelladi (2016). Investigation of the rotor wake of horizontal axis wind turbine under yawed condition. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 9(6), 2695-2705.##
Paraschivoiu, I. (2002). Wind turbine design: with emphasis on Darrieus concept, 1st ed.; Polytechnic International Press: Montreal, Canada.##
Pope, S. B. (2000). Turbulent flows, 1st ed.; Cambridge: University Press: Cambridge, England, 96-168.##
Posa, A. (2020a). Dependence of the wake recovery downstream of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine on its dynamic solidity. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 202, 104212.##
Posa, A. (2020b). Influence of tip speed ratio on wake features of a vertical axis wind turbine. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 197, 104076.##
Qian, G. W., Y. P. Song and T. Ishihara (2022). A control-oriented large eddy simulation of wind turbine wake considering effects of Coriolis force and time-varying wind conditions. Energy 239, 121876.##
Rezaeiha, A., H. Montazeri and B. Blocken (2018). Characterization of aerodynamic performance of vertical axis wind turbines: impact of operational parameters. Energy Conversion and Management 169, 45-77.##
Rezaeiha, A., I. Kalkman and B. Blocken (2017). CFD simulation of a vertical axis wind turbine operating at a moderate tip speed ratio: Guidelines for minimum domain size and azimuthal increment. Renewable Energy 107, 373-385.##
Wilson, D., S. Rodrigues, C. Segura, I. Loshchilov, F. Hutter, G. L. Buenfil, A. Kheiri, E. Keedwell, M. Ocampo-Pineda, E. Özcan, S. I. V. Peña, B. Goldman, S. B. Rionda, A. Hernández-Aguirre, K. Veeramachaneni and S. Cussat-Blanc (2018). Evolutionary computation for wind farm layout optimization. Renewable Energy 126, 681-691.##
Xiong, X. L., P. Lyu, W. L. Chen and H. Li (2020). Self-similarity in the wake of a semi-submersible offshore wind turbine considering the interaction with the wake of supporting platform. Renewable Energy 156, 328-341.##
Volume 15, Issue 4
July and August 2022
Pages 1155-1164
  • Received: 21 October 2021
  • Revised: 15 February 2022
  • Accepted: 29 March 2022
  • First Publish Date: 14 May 2022