Optimization of the Injectors Position for an Electric Arc Furnace by using CFD Simulation

Document Type : Regular Article


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sakarya University, Sakarya, 54050, Turkey



In this study, complex processes in a typical Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) such as combustion, radiation, heat, and mass transfer were solved and the optimum injector location was found using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The main aim of the injection optimization was to improve the thermal performance and the metallurgical process by changing the injection angle, the central angle of the injector (CAI), and injector length. Fifteen parametric cases were predicted and analyzed for optimization study. To decrease each simulation solution time of each cases, a polyhedral mesh structure was used instead of tetrahedral mesh for the EAF geometry. Thus, the total element number of the model was decreased by 1/5 while providing faster and unchanging results compared to the case with a tetrahedral mesh structure. The response surface optimization method was used for the optimization study. As a result, the optimum injector positioning was obtained as injection angle: -45°, injector length 614 mm, and CAI: 60°.


Alam, M., J. Naser, G. Brooks and A. Fontana (2010). Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Supersonic Coherent Jets for Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Process. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 41(6), 1354–1367.##
Alexis, J., M. Ramírez, G. Trapaga and P. Jonson, (2000). Modeling of a DC Electric Arc Furnace-Heat Transfer from the Arc., ISIJ International 40(11), 1089–1097.##
ANSYS Fluent 12.0 Theory Guide (2009) ANSYS, Inc.##
ANSYS Fluent User Manual (2013) ANSYS Inc.##
Askarova, A., A. Bekmukhamet, S. Bolegenova, S. Ospanova, B. Symbat, V. Maximov, M. Beketayeva and  A. Ergalieva (2016). 3-D Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer during Combustion of Solid Fuel in Bkz-420-140-7C Combustion Chamber of Kazakhstan. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 9(2), 699-709.##
Carmona, M. and C. Cortés (2014). Numerical Simulation of a Secondary Aluminum Melting Furnace Heated by a Plasma Torch. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 214(2), 334–346.##
Çamdali, Ü. and M. Tunç (2001).  Exergy analysis and efficiency in an industrial AC electric ARC furnace. Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (17), 2255-2267.##
Falahatkar, S. and H. Ahmadikia (2014). Thermal Analysis of Superheater Platen Tubes in Boilers. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 7(2), 197-208.##
Fruehan, R. J. (1998). The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel: Steelmaking and Refining Pittsburgh, USA.##
Guo, D. and G. Irons (2003). Modeling of Radiation Intensity an EAF, in: Third international conference on CFD in the Minerals and Process Industries. Melbourne, Australia.##
Hites, B. E. (2020). The growth of EAF steelmaking. Recycling Today. https://www. recyclingtoday.com/article/the-growth-of-eaf-steelmaking/ Accesed:16-12-2020##
Kim, S. E., D. Choudhury and Patel, B. (1997).
Computations of Complex Turbulent Flows Using the Commercial Code ANSYS FLUENT, In Proceedings of the ICASE/LaRC/AFOSR Symposium on Modeling Complex Turbulent Flows, Hampton, Virginia.##
Kipepe, T. M. and Pan X. (2014). Importance and Effect of Foaming Slag on Energy Efficiency. 71st World Foundry Congress. Bilbao, Spain.##
Launder, B. E. and D. B. Spalding (1972). Lectures in Mathematical Models of Turbulence. Academic Press, London, England.##
Lee, H., S. Choi and B. Kim (2010). Understanding Coal Gasification and Combustion Modeling in General Purpose CFD Code. Journal of the Korean Society of Combustion 15(3), 15-24.##
Li, Y. and R. Fruehan (2003). Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Post Combustion in the Electric Arc Furnace. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 34(3), 333–343.##
Odenthal, H. J., A. Kemminger, F. Krause and N. Vogl (2017). A Holistic CFD Approach for Standard and Shaft-Type Electric Arc Furnaces. Iron and Steel Technology Conference, Nashville, USA.##
Pretorius, E. B. and R. C. Carlisle (1998). Foamy Slag Fundamentals and Their Practical Application to Electric Furnace Steelmaking. 56th Electric Furnace Conferenca. New Orleans, USA.##
Rahman, M. M. (2010). Fundamental Investigation of Slag/Carbon Interactions in Electric Arc Furnaces Steelmaking Process. New South Wales: University of New South Wales, Faculty of Science School of Materials Science and Engineering.##
Sanche, J. L. G., A. N. Conejo and M. A. Ramirez-Argaez (2012). Effect of Foamy Slag Height on Hot Spots Formation inside the Electric Arc Furnace Based on a Radiation Model. ISIJ International 2(5), 804–813.##
Scheepers, E., Y. Yang, Allert A. T., R Boom and M. A. Reuter (2010). Process Modeling and Optimization of a Submerged Arc Furnace for Phosphorus Production. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 41(5), 990–1005.##
Shih, T. H., W. W. Liou, A. Shabbir, Z. Yang, J. Zhu (1995). New k-ε  Eddy-Viscosity Model for High Reynolds Number Turbulent Flows, Model Development and Validation.
Computers Fluids 24(3). 227-238.##
Wang, Z, Y. Fu, N. Wang and L. Feng (2014). 3D Numerical Simulation of Electrical Arc Furnaces for the MgO Production. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 214(11), 2284–2291.##
Wei, G., R. Zhu, X. Wu, L. Yang, K. Dong, T. Cheng, and T. Tang (2018). Study on the Fluid Flow Characteristics of Coherent Jets with CO2 and O2 Mixed Injection in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Processes. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science 49(3), 1405–1420.##
Worldsteel Association. https://www.worldsteel. org/media-centre/press-releases/2020/Global-crude-steel-output-increases-by-3.4--in-2019.html. Accesed:16-12-2020##
Yangaz, M. U., G. A. Çiftçioğlu and M. A. N. Kadırgan (2019). Comparison of Conventional and Modified Burners in Performance with Different Fuels using a Linear and a Non-linear Eddy-viscosity Turbulence Model. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 12(6), 2069-2081.##
Yigit, C., G. Coskun, E. Buyukkaya, U. Durmaz and H. R. Güven (2015). CFD Modeling of Carbon Combustion and Electrode Radiation in an Electric Arc Furnace. Applied Thermal Engineering 90, 831-837.##
Zhang, J., W., Prationo, L. Zhang and Z. Zhang (2013). Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling on the Air-Firing and Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Dried Victorian Brown Coal. Energy & Fuels 27(8), 4258-4269.##