Effect of Inclination Grooves on Axial Flow Compressor Stability: An Experimental and Numerical Simulation Study

Document Type : Regular Article


School of Power and Energy, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shanxi, 710129, China



In the present study, various groove casing treatments were evaluated under a high-speed subsonic axial flow compressor using experimental and numerical simulation methods. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of inclination of grooves on compressor stability and performance. The potential flow mechanisms were also evaluated. Three different inclination grooves were designed in this study: grooves with no inclination, grooves with 30 degrees upstream inclination and grooves with 30 degrees downstream inclination. Similar effect of the grooves on the compressor stability and efficiency was observed under experimental and numerical analyses. The grooves with no inclination, 30 degrees upstream inclination and 30 degrees downstream inclination enhanced stall margin by 6.08%, 8.74% and 3.03%, respectively. The peak efficiency losses of the three types of grooves were 1.62%, 0.94% and 2.33%, respectively. Tip flow field analyses demonstrated that the radial transport effect caused by grooves effectively reduced tip loads and alleviated tip blockage. This explains why the grooves enhanced the compressor stability. The radial transport effect was enhanced, and a larger stall margin improvement was obtained when grooves inclined upstream were applied. The tip flow loss was the dominant loss observed after grooves were applied on the compressor. The grooves with upstream inclination markedly reduced the tip flow loss, indicating that they exhibited the lowest effect on reducing compressor efficiency compared with the other types of grooves.


Bailey, E. E. (1972). Effect of grooved casing treatment on the flow range capability of a single-stage axial-flow compressor. No. NASA TM X-2459.##
Benser, W. A. and H. B. Finger (1957). Compressor stall problems in gas-turbine-type aircraft engines. SAE Transactions, 187-200.##
Berdanier, R. A. and N. L. Key (2018). Demonstrating Multistage Compressor Blockage Calculations Using Pressure Measurements for Large Tip Clearances. Journal of Propulsion and Power 34(2), 281-290.##
Choi, M., M. Vahdati and M. Imregun (2011). Effects of fan speed on rotating stall inception and recovery. Journal of turbomachinery 133(4), 041013.##
Chu, W. L., X. G. Lu and Y. H. Wu (2006). Numerical and experimental investigations of the flow in a compressor with circumferential grooves. Journal of Aerospace Power 21(1), 100-105.##
Chu, W. L., H. G. Zhang, Y. H. Wu and K. J. Ding (2008a). Impact of Grooved Width of Grooved Casing on Stall Margin Improvement. Acta Aeronautica Et Astronautica Sinica 29(4), 866-872.##
Chu, W. L., H. G. Zhang, Y. H. Wu and C. N. Dang (2008b). Effects of grooved number of grooved casing treatment on stall margin. Journal of Propulsion Technology 29(5), 598-603..##
Du, J., F. Lin, H. Zhang and J. Chen (2010). Numerical investigation on the self-induced unsteadiness in tip leakage flow for a transonic fan rotor. Journal of turbomachinery 132(2), 021017.##
Greitzer, E. M. (1976). Surge and rotating stall in axial flow compressors-part I: theoretical compression system model. Journal of Engineering for Power 98(2), 190.##
Huang, X., H. Chen and S. Fu (2008). CFD investigation on the circumferential grooves casing treatment of transonic compressor. In Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea, and Air 43161, 581-589.##
Kim, J. H., K. J. Choi and K. Y. Kim (2012). Performance evaluation of a transonic axial compressor with circumferential casing grooves. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy 226(2), 218-230.##
Liu, B. J., Z. B. Zhang and X. J. Yu (2013). Experimental Investigation on Characteristics of Tip Leakage Blockage in an Axial. Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica 12, 2682-2691.##
Mi, P., W. L. Chu, W. Wang and L. Y. Hou (2011). Research on the effects of axial inclined circumferential grooves casing treatment on stability extension of compressors, Chinese Journal of Turbomachinery 6, 3-7.##
Moore, R. D., G. Kovich and R. J. Blade (1971). Effect of casing treatment on overall and blade element performance of a compressor rotor. No. NASA-TN-D-6538.##
Müller, M. W., C. Biela, H. P. Schiffer and C. Hah (2008, January). Interaction of rotor and casing treatment flow in an axial single-stage transonic compressor with circumferential grooves. In Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea, and Air 43161, 67-78.##
Müller, M. W., H. P. Schiffer and C. Hah (2007, January). Effect of circumferential grooves on the aerodynamic performance of an axial single-stage transonic compressor. In Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea, and Air 47950, 115-124.##
Osborn, W. M., G. W. Lewis Jr and L. J. Heidelberg (1971). Effect of several porous casing treatments on stall limit and on overall performance of an axial flow compressor rotor. No. NASA TN D-6537.##
Rabe, D. C. and C. Hah (2002). Application of casing circumferential grooves for improved stall margin in a transonic axial compressor. In Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea, and Air 3610, 1141-1153.##
Rolfes, M., M. Lange and K. Vogeler (2015). Experimental investigation of circumferential groove casing treatments for large tip clearances in a low speed axial research compressor. In Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea, and Air 56635, V02AT37A021.##
Sakuma, Y., T. Watanabe, T. Himeno, D. Kato, T. Murooka and Y. Shuto (2014). Numerical analysis of flow in a transonic compressor with a single circumferential casing groove: influence of groove location and depth on flow instability. Journal of Turbomachinery 136(3), 031017.##
Shabbir, A. and J. J. Adamczyk (2005). Flow mechanism for stall margin improvement due to circumferential casing grooves on axial compressors. Journal of Turbomachinery 127(4), 708-717.##
Suder, K. L. (1998). Blockage development in a transonic, axial compressor rotor. No. NASA TM-113115.##
Wang, X., E. Benini, J. Sun, P. Song and Y. He (2022). Critical endwall blockage attenuation-based automatic optimization of casing treatment design for transonic axial flow compressor. Aerospace Science and Technology 107592.##
Wu, Y. H., H. G. Zhang, W. L. Chu and C. N. Dang (2008). Influences of axial positions of grooved casing treatment on stall margin improvement. Journal of Aerospace Power 23(7), 1212-1217.##
Wu, Y. H., H. G. Zhang, W. L. Chu and W. J. Deng (2009). Orthogonal experimental investigation of geometry structure of grooved casing treatment. Journal of Aerospace Power 24(4), 825-829. ##
Wu, Y., Z. Chen, G. An, J. Liu and G. Yang (2016, June). Origins and structure of rotating instability: Part I-experimental and numerical observations in a subsonic axial compressor rotor. In Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea, and Air 49729, V02DT44A003.##
Wu, Y., Q. Li, J. Tian and W. Chu (2012). Investigation of pre-stall behavior in an axial compressor rotor-Part I: Unsteadiness of tip clearance flow. Journal of Turbomachinery 134(5), 051027.##
Xu, A. (2019). Influence of Casing Treatment on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Transonic Compressor Rotor. Master's thesis. Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin, China.##
Xu, A., L. Shi, G. H. Qing, Q. Shi and K. Yao (2019). Influence of inclined circumferential groove casing treatment on flow characteristic of transonic compressor. Turbine Technology 61(02), 101-104+157.##
Zhang, H., W. Liu, E. Wang, Y. Wu and W. Yao (2019). Mechanism investigation of enhancing the stability of an axial flow rotor by blade angle slots. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering 233(13), 4750-4764.##
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Serial Number 70
February 2023
Pages 311-323
  • Received: 12 June 2022
  • Revised: 27 September 2022
  • Accepted: 27 September 2022
  • First Publish Date: 01 February 2023