An Investigation of Influence of Windshield Configuration and Train Length on High-Speed Train Aerodynamic Performance

Document Type : Regular Article

Authors

1 Key Laboratory of Traffic Safety on Track of Ministry of Education, School of Traffic & Transportation Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410075, China

2 Joint International Research Laboratory of Key Technology for Rail Traffic Safety, Central South University, Changsha 410075, China

3 National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Safety Technology for Rail Vehicle, Changsha 410075, China

10.47176/jafm.16.02.1433

Abstract

The aerodynamic performance of four train models with different windshield configurations (i.e., internal and/or external) in three train marshalling modes (i.e., 3, 6 and 8-car groups) was numerically investigated in this study. The train's airflow characteristics at Re=2.25×106 were determined using the shear stress transport (SST) k-  turbulence model. The results were validated by comparing the pressure distributions and drag forces on the streamlined heads with experimental data. The difference in windshield configuration and train length has a substantial influence on the train’s flow field and surface pressure distribution. For the trains with internal windshields, due to non-uniform geometry, the flow is separated and vortices are formed at the windshield area. The boundary layer profile increases with the increased train length, and its thickness varies with windshield configurations. Asymmetric vortices are formed in the wake at a distance close to the tail car’s nose, except for trains with external windshields. The reduction of the flow velocity as the train length increases causes a reduction of the low pressure near the tail car’s streamline transition, thus causing a decrease in the tail car’s drag and lift forces. Consequently, for trains with external windshields, the head car’s drag increases, whereas the total train drag reduces significantly as the train length increases. Therefore, employing external windshields in all the inter-carriage gap sections, irrespective of the train length, demonstrates a good ability to reduce future train’s aerodynamic drag.

Keywords


Baker, C. (2010). The flow around high speed trains. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 98(6), 277-298. ##
Baker, C. (2014). A review of train aerodynamics Part 2–Applications. The Aeronautical Journal 118(1202), 345-382.##
CEN European Standard (2010). Railway applications-Aerodynamics-Part 6: Requirements and test procedures for cross wind assessment.##
Chen, G., X. Li, L. Zhang, X. Liang, S. Meng and D. Zhou (2022). Numerical analysis of the effect of train length on train aerodynamic performance. AIP Advances 12(2), 025201.##
Dong, T., G. Minelli, J. Wang, X. Liang and S. Krajnović (2020). The effect of ground clearance on the aerodynamics of a generic high-speed train. Journal of Fluids and Structures 95, 102990.##
Du, J., X. F. Liang, G. B. Li, H. L. Tian and M. Z.  Yang (2020). Numerical simulatim of rainwater accumulation and flow characteristics over windshield of high-speed trains. Journal of Central South University 27(1), 198-209.##
Jia, L., D. Zhou and J. Niu (2017). Numerical calculation of boundary layers and wake characteristics of high-speed trains with different lengths. PLOS One 12(12), e0189798.##
Kukreja, N. and S. Jumar (2016). Aerodynamic loss in inter-car space of train and its reduction. International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology 6, 80-89.##
Li, T., H. Hemida, J. Zhang, M. Rashidi and D. Flynn (2018). Comparisons of shear stress transport and detached eddy simulations of the flow around trains. Journal of Fluids Engineering 140(11).##
Li, T., M. Li, Z. Wang and J. Zhang (2019). Effect of the inter-car gap length on the aerodynamic characteristics of a high-speed train. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit 233(4), 448-465.##
Menter, F. R. (1994). Two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence models for engineering applications. AIAA Journal 32(8), 1598-1605.##
Muld, T. W., G. Efraimsson and D. S. Henningson (2014). Wake characteristics of high-speed trains with different lengths. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit 228(4), 333-342.##
Munson, B. R., D. F. Young, T. H. Okiishi and W. W. Huebsch (2006). Fundamentals of fluid mechanics. John Wiley & Sons.##
Niu, J., Y. Wang, L. Zhang and Y. Yuan (2018a). Numerical analysis of aerodynamic characteristics of high-speed train with different train nose lengths. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 127, 188-199.##
Niu, J. Q., D. Zhou and X. F. Liang (2018b). Numerical simulation of the effects of obstacle deflectors on the aerodynamic performance of stationary high-speed trains at two yaw angles. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit 232(3), 913-927.##
Niu, J., Y. Wang and D. Zhou (2019). Effect of the outer windshield schemes on aerodynamic characteristics around the car-connecting parts and train aerodynamic performance. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 130, 1-16.##
Sicot, C., F. Deliancourt, J. Boree, S. Aguinaga and J. Bouchet (2018). Representativeness of geometrical details during wind tunnel tests. Application to train aerodynamics in crosswind conditions. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 177, 186-196.##
Sun, Z. K., T. T. Wang and F. Wu (2020). Numerical investigation of influence of pantograph parameters and train length on aerodynamic drag of high-speed train. Journal of Central South University 27(4), 1334-1350.##
Tan, C., D. Zhou, G. Chen, J. Sheridan and S. Krajnovic (2020). Influences of marshalling length on the flow structure of a maglev train. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 85, 108604.##
Tan, X. M. and Z. G. Yang (2022). Investigation on aerodynamic noise reduction for snow-plough of high-speed train. Journal of Central South University 29(5), 1735-1748.##
Tang, M. Z., X. H. Xiong, X. B. Li, J. Zhang, G. Chen and K. W. Wang (2022). Vibration characteristics of outer windshield structures of high-speed trains based on fluid–structure interactions. Nonlinear Dynamics.##
Tian, H. Q, S. Huang and M. Z. Yang (2015). Flow structure around high-speed train in open air. Journal of Central South University 22(2), 747-752.##
Tian, H. Q. (2007). Aerodynamics of train. China Railway Press, Beijing.##
Wang, F., Z. H. Guo, Z. L. Shi, S. Han, Y. G. Wang and J. Zhang (2022). A Study of Crosswind Characteristics on Aerodynamic Performance of High-Speed Trains on Embankment. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Mechanical Engineering.##
Wang, J., G. Minelli, T. Dong, K. He and S. Krajnović (2020). Impact of the bogies and cavities on the aerodynamic behaviour of a high-speed train. An IDDES study. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 207, 104406.##
Xia, C., H. Wang, X. Shan, Z. Yang and Q. Li (2017). Effects of ground configurations on the slipstream and near wake of a high-speed train. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 168, 177-189.##
Xia, Y., T. Liu, H. Gu, Z. Guo and W. Li (2020). Aerodynamic effects of the gap spacing between adjacent vehicles on wind tunnel train models. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics 14, 835-852.##
Yang, B., X. H. Xiong, Z. Li, X. B. He, P. H. Xie and M. Z. Tang (2022). Feasibility of replacing the 3-coach with a 1.5-coach grouping train model in wind tunnel experiment at different yaw angles. Journal of Central South University 29(6), 2062-2073.##
Zhang, J., A. Adamu, X. C. Su, Z. H.Guo and G. J. Gao (2022a). Effect of simplifying bogie regions on aerodynamic performance of high-speed train. Journal of Central South University 29(5), 1717-1734.##
Zhang, J., A. Adamu, S. Han, F. Wang, G. J. Gao and F. Gidado (2022b). A numerical investigation of inter-carriage gap configurations on the aerodynamic performance of a wind-tunnel train model. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 1-17.##
Zhang, J., J. Wang, Q. Wang, X. Xiong and G. Gao, (2018). A study of the influence of bogie cut outs' angles on the aerodynamic performance of a high-speed train. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 175, 153-168.##
Zhou, D., L. Wu, C. Tan and T. E. Hu (2021). Study on the effect of dimple position on drag reduction of high-speed maglev train. Transportation Safety and Environment 3(4), tdab027.##
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Serial Number 70
February 2023
Pages 337-352
  • Received: 12 July 2022
  • Revised: 21 September 2022
  • Accepted: 03 October 2022
  • First Publish Date: 01 February 2023