Numerical Investigation of the Effects of Chemical Species and Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms on Laminar Premixed Flame-Acoustic Wave Interactions

Document Type : Regular Article


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran



Numerical simulation of interactions between acoustic waves and flames is of utmost importance in thermo-acoustic instability research. In this study, interactions between a one-dimensional Methane-Air laminar premixed flame and acoustic waves with a frequency of 50 to 50000 Hz are simulated by simultaneously solving the equations for energy conservation, chemical species transport, state and continuity in one-dimensional space. By assuming that the flame thickness is smaller than the acoustic wavelength, the spatial pressure fluctuations can be neglected and the flame experiences only a time-varying acoustic pressure. The GRI mechanisms, as well as their reduced mechanisms, are considered to obtain results for steady flames without acoustic waves, and the interaction of unsteady flames with acoustic waves. Results show that the total heat-release-rate fluctuations for the flame is affected by increasing the frequency of the acoustic wave. An increase in frequency first increases the total heat released, and then decreases it. The obtained results are in good agreement with those of other researchers. Furthermore, at the presence of acoustic waves, various chemical species can affect the total heat-release-rate fluctuations. With Rayleigh's instability criterion, it can be shown that H2O, CO2 and O2 are the main species to the fluctuations of the total heat release rate and lead to flame instability. Results show that heat-release-rate of H2O specie is the most important on the total heat-release-rate. Therefore, for the flame-acoustic waves interaction problem, the best mechanism is the one that could predict the concentration of H2O more precisely.


Baum, M., T. Poinsot and D. Thévenin (1995). Accurate boundary conditions for multicomponent reactive flows. Journal of Computational Physics 116(2), 247–261.##
Beardsell, G. and G. Blanquart (2019). Impact of pressure fluctuations on the dynamics of laminar premixed flames. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 37(2), 1895–1902.##
Beardsell, G. and G. Blanquart (2021). Fully compressible simulations of the impact of acoustic waves on the dynamics of laminar premixed flames for engine-relevant conditions. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 38(2), 1923–1931.##
Bowman, C. T., R. K. Hanson, D. F. Davidson, W. C. Gardiner, V. Lissianski, G. P. Smith D. M. Golden, M. Frenklach and M. Goldenberg (n.d.). GRI-Mech 2.11.##
Chang, W. C. and J. Y. Chen (n.d.). Reduced Mechanisms based on GRI-Mech 1.2. Http://Firebrand.Me.Berkeley.Edu/Griredu.Html.##
Chao, Y. C., T. Yuan and C. S. Tseng (1996). Effects of flame lifting and acoustic excitation on the reduction of NOx emissions. Combustion Science and Technology 113–114, 49–65.##
Chen, J. Y. (n.d.). Reduced Mechanisms based
on GRI-Mech. https://tnfworkshop. org/chemistry/##
Clavin, P. A. U. L. and P. Pelce (1989). One-Dimensional Vibratory Instability of Planar Flames Propagating in Tubes. Published online by Cambridge University Press.##
Clavin, P. and G. Searby (2008). Unsteady response of chain-branching premixed-flames to pressure waves. Combustion Theory and Modelling 12(3), 545–567.##
Demare, D. and F. Baillot (2004). Acoustic enhancement of combustion in lifted nonpremixed jet flames. Combustion and Flame 139(4), 312–328.##
Fernandez-Tarrazo, E., A. L. Sánchez, A. Linan and F. A. Williams (2006). A simple one-step chemistry model for partially premixed hydrocarbon combustion. Combustion and Flame 147(1–2), 32–38.##
Frenklach, M., H. Wang, M. Goldenberg, G. P. Smith, D. M. Golden, C. T. Bowman, R. K. Hanson, W. C. Gardiner and V. Lissianski (1995). Gri-mech: An optimized detailed chemical reaction mechanism for methane combustion. In Topical Report, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States).##
Fujisawa, N., K. Iwasaki, K. Fujisawa and T. Yamagata (2019). Flow visualization study of a di ff usion fl ame under acoustic excitation. Fuel 251, 506–513.##
Hajialigol, N. and K. Mazaheri (2017). Thermal response of a turbulent premixed flame to the imposed inlet oscillating velocity. Energy 118, 209–220.##
Han, X. and A. S. Morgans (2015). Simulation of the flame describing function of a turbulent premixed flame using an open-source LES solver. Combustion and Flame 162(5), 1778–1792.##
Han, X., J. Yang and J. Mao (2016). LES investigation of two frequency effects on acoustically forced premixed flame. Fuel 185, 449–459.##
Jiménez, C., J. Quinard, J. Graña-Otero, H. Schmidt, and G. Searby (2012). Unsteady response of hydrogen and methane flames to pressure waves. Combustion and Flame 159(5), 1894–1908.##
Kazakov, A. and F. Frenklach (n.d. a). DRM19.
Kazakov, A. and F. Frenklach (n.d. b). DRM22.
Kee, R. J., F. M. Rupley and J. A. Miller (1989). Chemkin-II: A Fortran Chemical Kinetics Package for the Analysis of Gas-Phase Chemical Kinetics. SAND89-8009, Sandia National Laboratories.##
Klein, R. (1995). Semi-Implicit Extension of a Godunov- Type Scheme Based on Low Mach Number Asymptotics 1:One-Dimensional Flow. Journal of Computational Physics 121, 213–237.##
Laverdant, A. and D. Thevenin (2003). Interaction of a Gaussian acoustic wave with a turbulent premixed flam. Combustion and Flame 134, 11–19.##
Lee, C. Y. and S. Cant (2017). LES of Nonlinear Saturation in Forced Turbulent Premixed Flames. Flow, Turbulence and Combustion 99(2), 461–486.##
Massey, J. C., I. Langella and N. Swaminathan (2018). Large Eddy Simulation of a Bluff Body Stabilised Premixed Flame Using Flamelets. Flow, Turbulence and Combustion 101(4), 973–992.##
Mcintosh, A. C. (1991). Pressure disturbances of different length scales interacting with conventional flames. Combustion Science and Technology 75(4–6), 287–309.##
Mcintosh, A. C. (1993). The linearised response of the mass burning rate of a premixed flame to rapid pressure changes. Combustion Science and Technology 91(4–6), 329–346.##
Mcintosh, A. C. (1999). Deflagration fronts and compressibility. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 357(1764), 3523–3538.##
Oh, J., P. Heo and Y. Yoon (2009). Acoustic excitation effect on NOx reduction and flame stability in a lifted non-premixed turbulent hydrogen jet with coaxial air. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 34(18), 7851–7861.##
Peters, N. (1996). Fifteen lectures on laminar and turbulent combustion. Ercoftac Summer School 1428, 245.##
Rayleigh, J. S. W. (1945). Theory of Sound. Dover Publications; Unabridged Second Revised Edition.##
Saxena, P. and F. A. Williams (2006). Testing a small detailed chemical-kinetic mechanism for the combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Combustion and Flame 145(1–2), 316–323.##
Schmidt, H. and C. Jiménez (2010). Numerical study of the direct pressure effect of acoustic waves in planar premixed flames. Combustion and Flame 157(8), 1610–1619.##
Shalaby, H., A. Laverdant and D. Thévenin (2009). Direct numerical simulation of a realistic acoustic wave interacting with a premixed flame. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 32 I, 1473–1480.##
Shreekrishna, S. and T. Lieuwen (2009). High frequency premixed flame response to acoustic perturbations. In 15th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference (30th AIAA Aeroacoustics Conference).##
Smith, G. P., D. M. Golden, F. Frenklach, N. W. Moriarty, B. Eiteneer, M. Goldenberg, C. T. Bowman, R. K. Hanson, S. Song, W. C. Gardiner, V. V. Lissianski and Z. Qin (n.d.). GRI-Mech 3.0.
Sung, C. J., C. K. Law and J. Y. Chen (2001). Augmented reduced mechanisms for NO emission in methane oxidation. Combustion and Flame 125(1–2), 906–919.##
Lieuwen, T. C. and V. Yang (2005). Combustion Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines : Operational Experience , Fundamental Mechanisms , and Modeling. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.##
Tang, Q. (2003). Ph. D. Thesis. Computational Modelling of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry. Cornell University.##
Wangher, A., G. Searby and J. Quinard (2008). Experimental investigation of the unsteady response of premixed flame fronts to acoustic pressure waves. Combustion and Flame 154(1–2), 310–318. ##