Experimental Study on Wake Characteristics of Secondary Grooved Cylinders with Different Depths

Document Type : Regular Article


School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Jiangsu, Zhenjiang 212000, China



In this study, the flow field of a new secondary-grooved cylinder is determined by using particle image velocimetry (PIV) to understand the wake characteristics at different depths of the secondary grooved cylinders. In order to analyze the wake characteristic behind the secondary grooved cylinder with different depths, time-averaged streamlines, time-averaged velocity, RMS velocity, Reynolds stress, turbulent kinetic energy, and instantaneous flow structures are employed. The recirculation zone for secondary grooved cylinders with different depths decreases when compared to the smooth cylinder; the peak magnitudes of flow velocity fluctuation intensity and transverse velocity fluctuation intensity for secondary grooved cylinders with different depths are reduced and the locations appear delayed. Furthermore, in contrast to the smooth cylinder, the secondary grooved cylinders with different depths' Reynolds stress and turbulent kinetic energy are increased by the wake flow, and the transient large-scale vortex is split into several smaller-scale vortices behind the secondary grooved cylinders. The results obtained for the above flow structure are more significant when h/D = 0.05 for the secondary grooved cylinder.


Afroz, F. and M. A. R. Sharif (2022). Numerical study of cross-flow around a circular cylinder with differently shaped span-wise surface grooves at low Reynolds number. European Journal of Mechanics/B Fluids 91, 203-218.##
Aguedal, L., D. Semmar, A. S. Berrouk, A. Azzi and H. Oualli (2018). 3D vortex structure investigation using Large Eddy Simulation of flow around a rotary oscillating circular cylinder. European Journal of Mechanics/B Fluids 71, 113-125.##
Assi, G. R. S., P. W. Bearman and M. A. Tognarelli (2014). On the stability of a free-to-rotate short-tail fairing and a splitter plate as suppressors of vortex-induced vibration. Ocean Engincering 92, 234-244.##
Baek, H. and G. E. Karniadakis (2009). Suppressing vortex-induced vibrations via passive means. Fluids Struct 25, 848-866.##
Canpolat, C. (2015). Characteristics offlow past a circular cylinder with a rectangular groove. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation 45, 233-246.##
Canpolat, C. (2017). Influence of single rectangular groove on the flow past a circular cylinder. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 64, 79-88.##
Cao, Y. and T. Tamura (2015). Numerical investigations into effects of three-dimensional wake patterns on unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of a circular cylinder at Re=1.3×105. Fluids Struct 59, 351-369.##
Fujisawa, N., K. Hirabayashi and T. Yamagata (2020). Aerodynamic noise reduction of circular cylinder by longitudinal grooves. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 199, 104129.##
Gu, F., J. S. Wang, X. Q. Qiao and Z. Huang (2012). Pressure distribution, fluctuating forces andvortex shedding behavior of circular cylinder with rotatable splitter plates. Fluids Struct 28, 263-278.##
Huang, S. (2011). VIV suppression of a two-degree-of-freedom circular cylinder and drag reduction of afixed circular cylinder by the use of helical grooves. Journal of Fluids and Structures 27, 1124-1133.##
Hwang, J. Y. and K. S. Yang (2007). Drag reduction on a circular cylinder using dual detached splitter plates. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 95, 551-564.##
Law, Y. Z. and R. K. Jaiman (2018). Passive control of vortex-induced vibration by spanwise grooves. Fluids Struct 83, 1-26.##
Lim, H. C. and S. J. Lee (2003). PIV measurements of near wake behind a U-grooved cylinder. Fluids Struct 18, 119-130.##
Liu, K., J. Deng and M. Mei (2016). Experimental study on the confined flow over a circular cylinder with a splitter plate. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation 51, 95-104.##
Liu, Y. Z., L. L. Shi and J. Yu (2011). TR-PIV measurement of the wake behind a grooved cylinder at low Reynolds number. Fluids Struct 27, 394-407.##
Liu, Z. Y., H. B. Hu and B. W. Song (2009). Numerical Simulation Research about Riblet Surface with Different Spacing. Journal of System Simulation 19, 6025-6032.##
Oeffner, J. and G. V. Lauder (2012). The hydrodynamic function of shark skin and two biomimetic applications. Journal of Experimental Biology 215, 785-795.##
Qian, Q. and G. R. Wang (2019). Numerical simulation of drag reduction of V-grooved circular cylinder at subcritical Reynolds number. Advances in Marine Science 37(1), 150-160.##
Quintavalla, S. J., A. J. Angilell and A. J. Smits (2013). Drag reduction on grooved cylinders in the critical Reynolds number regime. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 48, 15-18.##
Rinoshika, H. and A. Rinoshika (2018). Effect of a horizontal hole on flow structures around a wall-mounted low-aspect-ratio cylinder. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 71, 80-94.##
Rinoshika, H. and A. Rinoshika (2019). Passive control of a front inclined hole on flow structures around a surface-mounted short cylinder. Ocean Engineering189, 106383.##
Sumner, D. (2009). Temporal Development of the Wake of a Non-Impulsively Started Circular Cylinder. Fedsm 78018, 1-8.##
Takayama, S. and K. Aoki (2005). Numerical analysis of flow characteristics around circular cylinders with arc grooves (school of engineering). Proceedings of the School of Engineering of Tokai University 30, 1-5.##
Talley, B. S. and G. Mungal (2002). Flow around cactus-shaped cylinders. Center for Turbulence Research Annual Research Briefs 2002, 363-376.##
Wang, G. R., C. J. Liao and G. Hu (2017). Numerical simulation analysis and the drag reduction performance investigation on circular cylinder with dimples at subcritical Reynolds number. Journal of Mechanical Strength 39(05), 1119-1125.##
Xie, F. F., Y. Yue and G. E. Karniadakis (2015). U-shaped fairings suppress vortex-induced vibrations for cylinders in cross-flow. Fluid Mech 782, 300-332.##
Xu, C. Y., L. W. Chen and X. Y. Lu (2010). Large-eddy simulation of the compressible flow past a wavy cylinder. Fluid Mech 665, 238-273.##
Zheng, C. T., P. Zhou and S. Y. Zhong (2021). An experimental investigation of drag and noise reduction from a circular cylinder using longitudinal grooves. Physics of Fluids 33, 115110.##
Zheng, Y. and H. Rinoshik. (2020). Analyses on flow structures behind a wavy square cylinder based on continuous wavelet transform and dynamic mode decomposition. Ocean Engineerin. 216, 108-117.##
Zhou, T., S. F. M. Razali and Z. Hao (2011). On the study of vortex-induced vibration of a cylinder with helical strakes. Fluids Struc 27, 903-917.##
Zhou, B., X. Wang, W. Guo, W. M. Gho and S. K. Tan (2015a). Experimental study on flow past a circular cylinder with rough surface. Ocean Engineering 109, 7-13.##
Zhou, B., X. K. Wang and W. Guo (2015b). Control of flow past a dimpled circular cylinder. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 69, 19-26.##
Zhou, B., X. K. Wang and W. Guo (2015c). Experimental measurements of the drag force and the near-wake flow patterns of a longitudinally grooved cylinder. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamic145, 30-41.##
Zhu, H. J. (2017). Suppression Method of Vortex Induced Vibration of Marine Risers. Petroleum Industry Press.##
Zhu, H. J. and T. M. Zhou (2019). Flow around a circular cylinder attached with a pair of fin-shaped strips. Ocean Engineering 190, 106484.##