Temporal Flow Characteristics of Three-Dimensional Centrifugal Impeller Suction System at Vacuum Conditions

Document Type : Regular Article


1 Key Laboratory of Fluid Transmission Technology of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018, China

2 Denair Energy Equipment Co., Ltd



Temporal flow characteristics of a 3D centrifugal impeller suction system were numerically studied in vacuum conditions. The blockage of the high-speed rotating impeller appeared, which greatly dropped the suction of the layer suction device. The temporal flow characteristics of the 3D centrifugal impeller suction system were worthy of attention in vacuum conditions. Separation vortices were generated near the blade suction surface. The blocking mechanism of the passage was further analyzed at different extremely low flow rates through the time-space evolution of the streamline. The Q-criteria was introduced to analyze the vortex evolution within the fluid domain of the impeller. Vortex evolution law was captured—the vortices always generated near the suction surface of the blade and moved to the pressure surface of the adjacent blade in the same passage and disappeared. The uniform distribution of three stall cells was captured through the diagram of turbulent kinetic energy. The flow rate increased, and the vortex evolution period gradually decreased. The comparison of pressure fluctuations in different conditions further demonstrated the flow mechanism at the vacuum flow rate was different from that at low flow rates. The sharp increase of pressure fluctuations near the blade pressure surface was consistent with the phenomenon near the suction surface. The pressure fluctuation at extremely low flow was mainly composed of scattered fluctuations caused by fluid separation. The steady and unsteady characteristics described the internal flow characteristics of this suction system at vacuum-flow rates. Theresults provide a profound design for vacuum cleaners.


An, K., Kwon, H., & J. Jang (2022). Acoustic metamaterial design for noise reduction in vacuum cleaner. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 36(11), 5353-5362. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-022-1002-0
Borello, D., A. Corsini, G. Delibra, M. Fiorito (2013). Large-eddy simulation of a tunnel ventilation fan. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 135(7), 071102, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4023686
Cao, Z., Zhang, X., & Y. Liang (2022). Influence of blade lean on performance and shock wave/tip leakage flow interaction in a transonic compressor rotor. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, 15(1), 153-167. https://doi.org/10.47176/jafm.15.01.32753
Chen, Y., Wang, Z., & Yang, H. (2023). Spatiotemporal characteristics and pressure fluctuations of internal flow in a high-speed centrifugal blower for vacuum cleaner at low flow-rate conditions. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, 16(2), 375-388. https://doi.org/10.47176/jafm.16.02.1245
Dang, Z., Zhang, Z., & Gao, M. (2019). Numerical simulation of thermal performance for super large-scale wet cooling tower equipped with an axial fan. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 135, 220-234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.01.111
Du, Y., Dou, H., F. Lu (2020). Counter-propagation stall of vaned diffuser in a centrifugal compressor near design condition. Journal of Turbomachinery, 142(11). https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4048604
Ghenaiet, A., & Khalfallah, S. (2019). Assessment of some stall-onset criteria for compressor compressors. Aerospace Science and Technology, 88, 193-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ast.2018.12.039
He, X., & Zheng, X. (2016). Mechanisms of lean on the performance of transonic centrifugal compressor impellers. Journal of Propul Power, 32(5), 1220-1229. https://doi.org/10.2514/1.B36008
Jeon, W., Baek, S., & Kim, C. (2003). Analysis of the aeroacoustic characteristics of the centrifugal fan in a vacuum cleaner. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 268(5), 1025-1035. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-460x(03)00319-5
Li, Z., Lu, X., & Zhang, Y. (2018). Numerical investigation of a highly loaded centrifugal compressor stage with a tandem bladed impeller. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part A Journal of Power and Energy, 232(3), 240-253.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0957650917725406
Liu, X., Li, Y., & Liu, Z. (2022). Experimental and numerical investigation of stall mechanism in centrifugal pump impeller. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics. 15(3), 927-641. https://doi.org/10.47176/jafm.15.03.33165
Mischo, B., Jenny, P., & Mauri, S. (2018). Numerical and experimental fluid-structure interaction-study to determine mechanical stresses induced by rotating stall in unshrouded centrifugal compressor impellers. Journal of Turbomachinery, 140(11). https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4041400
Niu, Z., Sun, Z., & Wang, B. (2022). Effects of nonaxisymmetic volute on rotating stall in the vaneless diffuser of centrifugal compressors. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 144(5). https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4053389
Semlitsch, B., & M. Mihăescu (2016). Flow phenomena leading to surge in a centrifugal compressor. Energy, 103, 572-587. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.03.032
Soheil, A., & Mahdi, G. M. (2022). Optimization of a vacuum cleaner fan suction and shaft power using Kriging surrogate model and MIGA. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power, 236(3), 519-537. https://doi.org/10.1177/09576509211049613
Vad, J. (2008). Aerodynamic effects of blade sweep and skew in low-speed axial flow rotors at the design flow rate: an overview. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part A Journal of Power and Energy, 222(1), 69-85. https://doi.org/10.1243/09576509JPE471
Wang, Z., Wei, Y., & Qian Y. (2018). Numerical study on entropy generation in thermal convection with differentially discrete heat boundary conditions. Entropy, 20(5), 351. https://doi.org/10.3390/e20050351
Wang, Z., Wei, Y. & Qian Y. (2020). A bounce back-immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann model for curved boundary. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 81, 428-440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2020.01.012
Wei, Y., Zhu, L. & Wang, Z. (2020). Numerical and experimental investigations on the flow and noise characteristics in a centrifugal fan with step tongue volutes. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part C Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 234(15), 2979-2993. https://doi.org/10.1177/0954406219890920
Wolfram, D., & Carolus, T. H. (2010). Experimental and numerical investigation of the unsteady flow field and tone generation in an isolated centrifugal fan impeller. Journal of Sound & Vibration, 329(21), 4380-4397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2010.04.034
Xue, X., & Wang, T. (2019). Stall recognition for centrifugal compressors during speed transients. Applied Thermal Engineering, 153, 104-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2019.02.027
Yuki, A., Yoshifumi, Y. & Nobumichi, F. (2022). Behavior of vaneless diffuser stall in a centrifugal compressor. Journal of Thermal Science, 31(1), 3-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11630-022-1557-1
Zhang, L., He, R., & Wang, S. (2020). A review of rotating stall in vaneless diffuser of centrifugal compressor. Journal of Thermal Science, 29(1), 323-342. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11630-020-1261-y
Zhang, H., Yang, C., & Shi, X. (2021a). Two stall stages in a centrifugal compressor with a vaneless diffuser.Aerospace Science and Technology, 110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ast.2021.106496
Zhang, Y., Lu, X., & Zhang Y. (2021b). Stall behavior in an ultra-high-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor: backward-traveling rotating stall. Journal of Turbomachinery, 1-51.  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4050918