Effect of Obstacle Length Variation on Hydrogen Deflagration in a Confined Space Based on Large Eddy Simulations

Document Type : Regular Article

Authors

1 School of Petrochemical Engineering & Environment, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, 316022, China

2 School of Naval Architecture & Maritime, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, 316022, China

3 National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Harbor Oil & Gas Storage and Transportation Technology, Zhoushan, 316022, China

4 Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Environmental Pollution Control, Zhoushan, 316022, China

5 Department of Oil, Army Logistical University, Chongqing, 401331, China

10.47176/jafm.17.02.2106

Abstract

In the field of hydrogen safety and combustion, the effect of obstacles on hydrogen deflagration is a topic of general interest to scholars. In previous studies, scholars usually used uniform obstacles under various operating conditions and obtained conclusions by changing their number and positions. However, in practice, the shapes of obstacles at an accident site are often not the same and regular. In this paper, a series of obstacles with variations in length were investigated, and the effects of the obstacles on hydrogen deflagration under different working conditions were analyzed. The configuration of the obstacles with gradually increasing lengths amplified the vortices in the flow field so that the propagation direction of the flame front surface was reversed after passing three obstacles. The variations in the lengths of the obstacles had a significant stretching effect on the propagation of the flame and a considerable acceleration effect on the propagation speed of the flame. The main reason for the acceleration was the rapid propagation of the flame achieved by the vortex when rupture occurred. The change in the pressure gradient that occurred at the center of rotation caused rapid movement of the combustion gases, which ultimately led to an increase in the flame propagation speed. A configuration with gradually increasing lengths of the obstacles promoted the overpressure. A configuration with gradually decreasing lengths of the obstacles suppressed the overpressure. The reason for the formation of the local high-pressure area was that unburned gas was accumulated there by pressure waves and the obstacle walls, and then the thermal expansion formed a high pressure. The Rayleigh–Taylor and Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities caused the overpressure to rise further. The results can provide a theoretical basis for hydrogen transportation, storage, and safety. 

Keywords

Main Subjects


Ballossier, Y., Virot, F., & Melguizo-Gavilanes, J. (2021). Flame propagation and acceleration in narrow channels: Sensitivity to facility specific parameters. Shock Waves, 31(4), 307-321. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00193-021-01015-9
Boeck, L. R., Berger, F. M., Hasslberger, J., & Sattelmayer, T. (2016). Detonation propagation in hydrogen–air mixtures with transverse concentration gradients. Shock Waves, 26(2), 181-192. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00193-015-0598-8
Brennan, S. L., Makarov, D. V., & Molkov, V. (2009). LES of high pressure hydrogen jet fire. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 22(3), 353-359. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2008.12.007
Charlette, F., Meneveau, C., & Veynante, D. (2002). A power-law flame wrinkling model for LES of premixed turbulent combustion Part I: non-dynamic formulation and initial tests. Combustion and Flame, 131(1), 159-180. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-2180(02)00400-5
Chen, C. k., Zhang, Y. l., Zhao, X. l., Lei, P., & Nie, Y .l. (2020). Experimental study on the influence of obstacle aspect ratio on ethanol liquid vapor deflagration in a narrow channel. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 153, 106354. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2020.106354
Chen, P., Sun, Y., Li, Y., & Luo, G. (2017). Experimental and LES investigation of premixed methane/air flame propagating in an obstructed chamber with two slits. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 49, 711-721. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2016.11.005
Dai, Q., Zhang, S., Zhang, S., Sun, H., & Huang, M. (2021). Large eddy simulation of premixed CH4/Air deflagration in a duct with obstacles at different heights. ACS Omega, 6(41), 27140-27149. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c03814
Debnath, P., & Pandey, K. M. (2023a). Numerical analysis on detonation wave and combustion efficiency of pulse detonation combustor with U-Shape combustor. Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications, 15(10). https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4062702
Debnath, P., & Pandey, K. M. (2023b). Numerical studies on detonation wave in hydrogen-fueled pulse detonation combustor with shrouded ejector. Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 45(2), 104. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40430-023-04036-w
Demir, M. E., & Dincer, I. (2018). Cost assessment and evaluation of various hydrogen delivery scenarios. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 43(22), 10420-10430. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.08.002
Di Lullo, G., Giwa, T., Okunlola, A., Davis, M., Mehedi, T., Oni, A. O., & Kumar, A. (2022). Large-scale long-distance land-based hydrogen transportation systems: A comparative techno-economic and greenhouse gas emission assessment. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 47(83), 35293-35319. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2022.08.131
Di Sarli, V., Di Benedetto, A., & Russo, G. (2009). Using large eddy simulation for understanding vented gas explosions in the presence of obstacles. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 169(1), 435-442. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.03.115
Dincer, I., & Acar, C. (2015). Review and evaluation of hydrogen production methods for better sustainability. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 40(34), 11094-11111. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.12.035
Elshimy, M., Ibrahim, S., & Malalasekera, W. (2021). LES – DFSD modelling of vented hydrogen explosions in a small-scale combustion chamber. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 72, 104580. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2021.104580
Faye, O., Szpunar, J., & Eduok, U. (2022). A critical review on the current technologies for the generation, storage, and transportation of hydrogen. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 47(29), 13771-13802. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2022.02.112
Gao, J. F., Ai, B. J., Hao, B., Guo, B. G., Hong, B. Y., & Jiang, X. S. (2022). Effect of obstacles gradient arrangement on non-uniformly distributed LPG-Air Premixed gas deflagration. Energies, 15(19), 6872. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15196872
Gong, Y., & Li, Y. (2018). STAMP-based causal analysis of China-Donghuang oil transportation pipeline leakage and explosion accident. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2018.10.001
Goodwin, G. B., Houim, R. W., & Oran, E. S. (2016). Effect of decreasing blockage ratio on DDT in small channels with obstacles. Combustion and Flame, 173, 16-26. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2016.07.029
Guo, B., Gao, J., Hao, B., Ai, B., Hong, B., & Jiang, X. (2022). Experimental and numerical study on the explosion dynamics of the non-uniform liquefied petroleum gas and air mixture in a channel with mixed obstacles. Energies, 15(21), 7999. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15217999
Hao, B., Gao, J. F., Guo, B. G., Ai, B. J., Hong, B. Y., & Jiang, X. S. (2022). Numerical simulation of premixed methane-air explosion in a closed tube with U-Type obstacles. Energies, 15(13), 4909. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134909
Hong, S., Lee, W., Kang, S., & Song, H. H. (2015). Analysis of turbulent diffusion flames with a hybrid fuel of methane and hydrogen in high pressure and temperature conditions using LES approach. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 40(35), 12034-12046. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.05.081
Ji, T., Qian, X., Yuan, M., Wang, D., He, J., Xu, W., & You, Q. (2017). Case study of a natural gas explosion in Beijing, China. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2017.07.013
Korytchenko, K., Senderowski, C., Samoilenko, D., Poklonskiy, E., Varshamova, I., & Maksymov, A. (2022). Numerical analysis of the spark channel expansion in a high-pressure hydrogen-oxygen mixture and in nitrogen. Shock Waves, 32(4), 321-335. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00193-022-01077-3
Li, G. Q., Du, Y., Wang, S. M., Qi, S., Zhang, P. L., & Chen, W. Z. (2017). Large eddy simulation and experimental study on vented gasoline-air mixture explosions in a semi-confined obstructed pipe. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 339, 131-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.06.018
Li, G. Q., Wu, J., Wang, S. M., Bai, J., Wu, D. J., & Qi, S. (2021). Effects of gas concentration and obstacle location on overpressure and flame propagation characteristics of hydrocarbon fuel-air explosion in a semi-confined pipe. Fuel, 285, 119268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.119268
Li, G., Zheng, K., Wang, S., & Chen, W. (2022a). Comparative study on explosion characteristics of hydrogen and gasoline vapor in a semi-confined pipe based on Large Eddy Simulation. Fuel, 328, 125334. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2022.125334
Li, M., Liu, D., Shen, T., Sun, J., & Xiao, H. (2022b). Effects of obstacle layout and blockage ratio on flame acceleration and DDT in hydrogen-air mixture in a channel with an array of obstacles. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 47(8), 5650-5662. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2021.11.178
Li, X., Dong, J., Jin, K., Duan, Q., Sun, J., Li, M., & Xiao, H. (2022c). Flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition in a channel with continuous triangular obstacles: Effect of equivalence ratio. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 167, 576-591. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2022.09.033
Li, Y., Xie, H., Bi, M., Bo, Y., & Gao, W. (2022d). Effects of cloud size and built-in obstacles on hydrogen cloud explosion using large eddy simulation. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 77, 104788. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2022.104788
Liu, J., & Wang, H. (2022). Machine learning assisted modeling of mixing timescale for LES/PDF of high-Karlovitz turbulent premixed combustion. Combustion and Flame, 238, 111895. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2021.111895
Luo, Z. M., Kang, X. F., Wang, T., Su, B., Cheng, F. M., & Deng, J. (2021). Effects of an obstacle on the deflagration behavior of premixed liquefied petroleum gas-air mixtures in a closed duct. Energy, 234, Article 121291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2021.121291
Lv, X., Zheng, L., Zhang, Y., Yu, M., & Su, Y. (2016). Combined effects of obstacle position and equivalence ratio on overpressure of premixed hydrogen–air explosion. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 41(39), 17740-17749. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.07.263
Nicoud, F. D. F. (1999). Subgrid-Scale stress modelling based on the square of the velocity gradient tensor. Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, 62(3), 183-200. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009995426001
Pan, C., Sun, H., Zhu, X., Zhao, J., Wang, X., & Liu, Y. (2022a). Vented ethanol-gasoline vapor explosions initiated by two symmetric sparks in a channel. Fuel, 329, 125499. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2022.125499
Pan, C., Wang, X., Sun, H., Zhu, X., Zhao, J., Fan, H., & Liu, Y. (2022b). Large-eddy simulation and experimental study on effects of single-dual sparks positions on vented explosions in a channel. Fuel, 322, 124282. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2022.124282
Qiming, X., Guohua, C., Qiang, Z., & Shen, S. (2022). Numerical simulation study and dimensional analysis of hydrogen explosion characteristics in a closed rectangular duct with obstacles. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 47(92), 39288-39301. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2022.09.091
Qin, Y., & Chen, X. (2021). Flame propagation of premixed hydrogen-air explosion in a closed duct with obstacles. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 46(2), 2684-2701. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.10.097
Qin, Y., & Chen, X. (2022). Study on the dynamic process of in-duct hydrogen-air explosion flame propagation under different blocking rates. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 47(43), 18857-18876. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2022.04.004
Sha, S., Chen, Z., & Jiang, X. (2014). Influences of obstacle geometries on shock wave attenuation. Shock WaveS, 24(6), 573-582. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00193-014-0520-9
Shen, X., Shen, J., Liu, H., Wen, J. X., Ma, Y., Zou, X., & Liu, Z. (2023). Numerical investigation on dynamic behavior of premixed hydrogen/air flame propagation in a closed tube. Fuel, 354, 129295. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2023.129295
Sheng, Z., Yang, G., Gao, W., Li, S., Shen, Q., & Sun, H. (2023). Study on the dynamic process of premixed hydrogen-air deflagration flame propagating in a closed space with obstacles. Fuel, 334, 126542. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2022.126542
Wang, H., Tong, Z., Zhou, G., Zhang, C., Zhou, H., Wang, Y., & Zheng, W. (2022a). Research and demonstration on hydrogen compatibility of pipelines: a review of current status and challenges. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 47(66), 28585-28604. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2022.06.158
Wang, Q., Luo, X. J., Li, Q., Rui, S. C., Wang, C. J., & Zhang, A. F. (2022b). Explosion venting of hydrogen-air mixture in an obstructed rectangular tube. Fuel, 310, Article 122473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2021.122473
Wang, S., Xiao, G., Mi, H., Feng, Y., & Chen, J. (2023). Experimental and numerical study on flame fusion behavior of premixed hydrogen/methane explosion with two-channel obstacles. Fuel, 333, 126530. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2022.126530
Wang, T., Yang, P., Yi, W., Luo, Z., Cheng, F., Ding, X., Kang, X., Feng, Z., & Deng, J. (2022c). Effect of obstacle shape on the deflagration characteristics of premixed LPG-air mixtures in a closed tube. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 168, 248-256. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2022.09.079
Wen, X., Ding, H., Su, T., Wang, F., Deng, H., & Zheng, K. (2017). Effects of obstacle angle on methane–air deflagration characteristics in a semi-confined chamber. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 45, 210-216. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2017.01.007
Wen, X., Yu, M., Liu, Z., Li, G., Ji, W., & Xie, M. (2013). Effects of cross-wise obstacle position on methane–air deflagration characteristics. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 26(6), 1335-1340. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2013.08.006
Xiao, G. Q., Wang, S., Mi, H. F., & Khan, F. (2022). Analysis of obstacle shape on gas explosion characteristics. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 161, 78-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2022.03.019
Xiao, H., Duan, Q., Jiang, L., & Sun, J. (2014a). Effects of ignition location on premixed hydrogen/air flame propagation in a closed combustion tube. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39(16), 8557-8563. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.03.164
Xiao, H., Duan, Q., & Sun, J. (2018). Premixed flame propagation in hydrogen explosions. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 81, 1988-2001. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.06.008
Xiao, H., Sun, J., & Chen, P. (2014b). Experimental and numerical study of premixed hydrogen/air flame propagating in a combustion chamber. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 268, 132-139. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.12.060
Xiao, H., wang, Q., Shen, X., Guo, S., & Sun, J. (2013). An experimental study of distorted tulip flame formation in a closed duct. Combustion and Flame, 160(9), 1725-1728. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2013.03.011
Zhao, B., Li, S., Gao, D., Xu, L., & Zhang, Y. (2022). Research on intelligent prediction of hydrogen pipeline leakage fire based on Finite Ridgelet neural network. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 47(55), 23316-23323. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2022.05.124
Zhou, Y., Li, Y., & Gao, W. (2023). Experimental investigation on unconfined hydrogen explosion with different ignition height. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2023.02.072
Zimont, V. L., & Battaglia, V. (2005). Joint RANS/LES approach to premixed flames modelling in the context of the TFC combustion model. Engineering Turbulence Modelling and Experiments 6, 77(1-4), 905-914. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-008044544-1/50087-X