A Three-dimensional CFD Study on Multiphase Flow in an FCC Regenerator Integrated with Oxy-combustion

Document Type : Regular Article


1 Advanced Materials Research Group, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG72RD, United Kingdom

2 Mechanical Engineering, Inönü University, Malatya, 44280, Türkiye



A vital process for converting heavy petroleum productions is Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC). As a major source of CO2 emissions, the regenerator reactor in the FCC unit accounts for about 20-35% of the refinery's total emissions. A common method for reducing CO2 emissions from the FCC regenerator is oxy-combustion, which has different advantages with regard to reducing energy penalties and associated costs. In this study, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) study was used to examine the hydrodynamic characteristics of solid particles and gas inside the FCC regenerator, allowing CO2 to be captured more efficiently. Utilizing Ansys Fluent platform, the Eulerian-Eulerian model was applied with granular flow kinetic theory. In the simulations, different mesh sizes were tested, and the hydrodynamics of the oxy-combustion regenerator were evaluated by adjusting CO2 flow rates to achieve similar fluidization behaviors. The CFD results indicated that the conventional drag model accurately predicted the density phases within the bed. In oxy-combustion, CO2, due to its density, naturally creates a smaller dense phase compared to air-combustion. Moreover, optimizing the fluidizing gas velocities resulted in enhanced particle mixing, resulting in a distributed flow with vortices within the dense phases due to a reduction in gas velocity. To improve the environmental performance of the FCC unit, this research provides valuable insight into the hydrodynamics of solid catalysts used in the oxy-combustion process. 


Main Subjects

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