Stall Inception Control by Setting Groove Based on Its Formation Mechanism in Centrifugal Impeller

Document Type : Regular Article


1 College of Electrical, Energy and Power Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China

2 College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China

3 School of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China

4 Beijing Engineering Research Center of Safety and Energy Saving Technology for Water Supply Network System, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China



Stall, a complex flow phenomenon in centrifugal pump, plays a crucial role in pump safety and stability under part-load conditions. In this paper, a verified numerical simulation method is employed to analyze the three-dimensional flow field under the stall inception conditions. The results reveal the initial stall vortex occurs near the Q=0.7Qd condition in the prototype impeller. Based on stall formation mechanism, the high-velocity fluid near the blade pressure side is sucked into suction side of next impeller channel by setting a groove near the blade leading edge. This jet flow can prevent the narrow vortices near the impeller shroud from moving towards the blade suction side, thereby suppressing the formation of stall vortex. By comparing the effects of different groove locations, directions, and sizes on stall vortex control, the optimal groove width is determined to be approximately 1mm. Compared with the prototype impeller, the grooved impeller can completely eliminate the stall vortex and significantly reduce pressure pulsation under part-load conditions. Moreover, the head of grooved impeller is increased by nearly 15% under Q=0.6Qd condition, and the potential suppression mechanism is also explained. Based on the stall formation mechanism, this paper puts forward an effective stall control method, which delays the stall inception significantly.


Main Subjects

Adu, D., Du, J. G., Darko, R. O., Antwi, E. O., & Khan, M. A. S. (2021). Numerical and experimental characterization of splitter blade impact on pump as turbine performance. Science Progress, 104(2), 1-15.
Chiang, H. W. D., & Fleeter, S. (1991). Flutter control of incompressible flow turbomachine blade rows by splitter blades. 27th Joint Propulsion Conference.
Cui, B. L., Zhang, C. L., Zhang, Y. L., & Zhu, Z. C. (2020) Influence of cutting angle of blade trailing edge on unsteady flow in a centrifugal pump under off-design conditions. Applied Sciences, 10(2), 1-16.
Cui, B., Zhu, K., Zhang, Y., & Lin, P. (2019). Experimental and numerical study of the performance and cavitation flow of centrifugal pump with jetting device. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 33(10), 4843-4853.
Davood, K., & Shirani, E. (2018). Influences of impeller splitter blades on the performance of a centrifugal pump with viscous fluids. International Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems, 11(4), 400-411. IJFMS.2018. 11.4. 400
Du, Q. A., Zhu, J. Q., Zhou, M., & Li, W. (2011). Computational investigation of blade slotting on a high-load low-pressure turbine profile at various reynolds numbers: Part I-Slotting scheme's verification. Journal of Thermal Science, 20(1), 13-20.
Gölcü, M., & Pancar, Y. (2005). Investigation of performance characteristics in a pump impeller with low blade discharge angle. World Pumps, 0(468), 32–40. (05)707 49-5
Gölcü, P. Y., & Sekmen, Y. (2006). Energy saving in a deep well pump with splitter blade. Energy Conversion and Management, 47(5), 638–651.
Guo, S. J., & Maruta, Y. (2005). Experimental investigations on pressure fluctuations and vibration of the impeller in a centrifugal pump with vaned diffusers. JSME International Journal Series B Fluids and Thermal Engineering, 48(1), 136-143.
Jadidi, M., Bazdidi-Tehrani, F., & Kiamansouri, M. (2018). Scale-adaptive simulation of unsteady flow and dispersion around a model building: spectral and POD analyses. Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 11(2), 241-260. /EC-04-2019-0147
Jia, X. Q., Yuan, S., Zhu, Z. C., & Cui, B. L. (2019). Numerical study on instantaneous radial force of a centrifugal pump for different working conditions. Engineering Computations. 37(2), 458-480. 10.1108/EC-04-2019 -0147
Kergourlay, G., Younsi, M., Bakir, F., & Rey, R. (2007). Influence of splitter blades on the flow field of a centrifugal pump: test-analysis comparison. International Journal of Rotating Machinery2007.
Khoeini, D., & Shirani, E. (2019). Influences of diffuser vanes parameters and impeller micro grooves depth on the vertically suspended centrifugal pump performance. Journal of Mechanics. 35(5), 735-746. 2019. 13
Korkmaz, G, M., & Kurbano─člu, C. (2017). Effects of blade discharge angle, blade number and splitter blade length on deep well pump performance. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, 10(2), 529-540.
Liu, X. D., Farhat, M., Li, Y. J., Liu, Z. Q., & Yang, W. (2023). Onset of flow separation phenomenon in a low-specific speed centrifugal pump impeller. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 145(2), 021206. 40562 13
Liu, X. D., Li, Y. J., Liu, Z. Q., & Yang, W. (2022). Dynamic stall inception and evolution process measured by high-frequency particle image velocimetry system in low specific speed impeller. Journal of Fluids Engineering144(4), 041504.
Lu, J. X., Zeng, Y. Z., Zhu, B. S., Hu, Bo., & Hua, H. (2020). Investigation of the noise induced by unstable flow in a centrifugal pump. Energies, 13(3), 589.
Luo, H. Y, Tao, R., Yang, J. D., & Wang, Z. W. (2020). Influence of blade leading-edge shape on rotating-stalled flow characteristics in a centrifugal pump impeller. Applied Sciences, 10(5635), 5635. 16563 5
Onoue, O, A., Hayakawa, M., & Kawata, Y. (2016). Study on improvement of suction performance for industrial pumps by applying splitter blade. Turbomachinery, 44(2), 73–80.
Pedersen, N., Larsen, P. S., & Jacobsen, C. B. (2003). Flow in a centrifugal pump impeller at design and off-design conditions—Part I: Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) Measurements. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 125(1), 61–72.
Sato, F. A., & Takamatsu, Y. (1993). Influence of impeller blade angles of centrifugal pump on air/water two-phase flow performance. Nihon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu, B Hen/Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Part B, 59(567), 3513-3518. kikaib.59.3513
Shigemitsu, F. J., Kaji, K., & Wada, T. (2013). Unsteady internal flow conditions of mini-centrifugal pump with splitter blades. Journal of Thermal Science, 22(1), 86-91. 10.1007/ s11630-013-0596-z
Shojaeefard, T, M., Ehghaghi, M., Fallahian, M., & Beglari, M. (2012). Numerical study of the effects of some geometric characteristics of a centrifugal pump impeller that pumps a viscous fluid. Computers & Fluids, 61-70. 2012.02.028
Song, P. F., Zhang, Y. X., Xu, C., Zhou, X., & Zhang, J. Y. (2015). Numerical studies on cavitation behavior in impeller of centrifugal pump with different blade profiles. IJFMS, 8(2), 94-101. 10.5293/IJFMS. 2015.8.2.094
Kyparissis, S. D., & Margaris, D. P. (2012). Experimental investigation and passive flow control of a cavitating centrifugal pump. International Journal of Rotating Machinery, 1–8. 248082
Tanaka, H. (2011). Vibration behavior and dynamic stress of runners of very high head reversible pump-turbines. International Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems, 4(2), 289-306. 10.5293/ IJFMS.2011.4.2.289
Wu, X. F., Sun, X. L., Tan, M. G., & Liu, H. L. (2021). Research on operating characteristics of a centrifugal pump with broken impeller. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 13(9).
Ye, W. X., Zhu, Z. C., Qian, Z. D., & Luo, X. W. (2020). Numerical analysis of unstable turbulent flows in a centrifugal pump impeller considering the curvature and rotation effect. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 34(7), 2869-2881. 12206-020-0619-0
Yuan, Y., & Yuan, S. Q. (2017). Analyzing the effects of splitter blade on the performance characteristics for a high-speed centrifugal pump. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 9(12). 1687814017745251
Zhao, X. R., Xiao, Y. X., Wang, Z. W., Luo, Y. Y., & Cao, L. (2018). Unsteady flow and pressure pulsation characteristics analysis of rotating stall in centrifugal pumps under off-design conditions. Journal of Fluids Engineering. 140(2), 021105.
Zhou, X. Y., Zhao, Q. J., Cui, W. W., & Xu, J. Z. (2017). Investigation on axial effect of slot casing treatment in a transonic compressor. Applied Thermal Engineering, 126(1), 53-69.
Zhu, J., Chu, W., & Lu, X. (2006). Design and experimental investigations of a new type of casing treatment for an axial flow compressor. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 220(3), 207-215.