Implications of Velocity Ratio on the Characteristics of a Circular Synthetic Jet Flush Mounted on a Torpedo Model in Quiescent and Cross-Flow Conditions


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Energy Acres, Bidholi, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India 248007

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India 208016


A high velocity ratio synthetic jet on an arched surface is of great interest for its potential applications in navy, including torpedo. However, in spite of detailed research on synthetic jets over a flat surface in cross-flow, very few observations have been made on synthetic jets over a surface which is shaped like a torpedo. This study experimentally explores a synthetic jet mounted on a torpedo shaped model in quiescent and cross-flow conditions. Initially, the synthetic jet is characterized for two different diaphragm displacements and at four distinct actuation frequencies in the range of 1 Hz – 6 Hz in a quiescent flow environment. Subsequently, in cross flow, similar study is conducted for three cross-flow velocities ranging from 7.2 – 32 cm/s, at a fixed amplitude of diaphragm oscillations. The measurements are carried out using Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and the qualitative LIF visualizations are corroborated by the quantitative LDV data. These results indicate that the synthetic jet vortex rings can be grouped as stretched vortex rings and distorted tilted vortex rings. The flow structures primarily depend on the velocity ratio, which is function of cross-flow velocity and frequency of actuation. The flow physics in case of a curved torpedo surface is slightly different as compared to the synthetic jet on a flat surface.