A Spraying Model of Non-atomizing Sprinkler based on Jet Fragmentation

Document Type : Regular Article

Authors

Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, China

10.47176/jafm.15.05.1039

Abstract

This work is devoted to the development of a new model for the non-atomizing sprinkler irrigation jet, for calculating the trajectories and landing positions of water droplets. The novelty of the proposed model is that the secondary breakup of the droplets can be calculated during the spraying process. For irrigation jet with a second wind-induced breakup regime, the model is optimized based on the ballistic theory by considering the secondary breakup of droplets and the jet breakup length. The wave-breaking model is used to determine the secondary breakup of the droplets. The output of this model is the water application rate that is calculated by using the cumulative volume of droplets along the radial spraying direction. A comparison of the results obtained using the proposed model with experimental data is conducted to verify the accuracy and reliability of the proposed model. The results show a good agreement of the peak water application rate between the optimized model and the experimental data, with an average error ranging within 6%. The droplets in the front spraying area usually have a diameter of 0-2 mm. This is computed by using the droplet secondary breakup sub-model, resulting in a considerably improved accuracy of the optimized model in the prediction of the water application rate of a sprinkler.

Keywords


Aghajani, H., S. Dembele and J. X. Wen (2014). Analysis of a semi-empirical sprinkler spray model. Fire Safety Journal 64, 1–11.##
Ashgriz, N. and J. Y. Poo (1990). Coalescence and separation in binary collisions of liquid drops. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 221, 183–204.##
Bailey, A. G., W. Balachandran and T. J. Williams (1983). The rosin-rammler size distribution for liquid droplet ensembles. Journal of Aerosol Science 14(1), 39–46.##
Broumand, M., G. Rigby and M. Birouk (2017). Effect of Nozzle Exit Turbulence on the Column Trajectory and Breakup Location of a Transverse Liquid Jet in a Gaseous Flow. Flow, Turbulence and Combustion 99(1), 153–171.##
Carrión, P., J. M. Tarjuelo J. and Montero (2001). SIRIAS: A simulation model for sprinkler irrigation. I. Description of model. Irrigation Science 20(2), 73–84.##
Charalampous, G., Y. Hardalupas and A. Taylor (2009a). Structure of the Continuous Liquid Jet Core during Coaxial Air-Blast Atomisation. International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics 1(4), 389–415.##
Charalampous, G., Y. Hardalupas and A. M. K. P. Taylor (2009b). Novel technique for measurements of continuous liquid jet core in an atomizer. AIAA Journal 47(11), 2605–2615.##
De Lima, J. L. M. P., P. J. J. F. Torfs and V. P. Singh (2002). A mathematical model for evaluating the effect of wind on downward-spraying rainfall simulators. Catena 46(4), 221–241.##
Engelbert, C., Y. Hardalupas and J. H. Whitelaw (1995). Breakup phenomena in coaxial airblast atomizers. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 451(1941), 189–229.##
Eroglu, H., N. Chigier and Z. Farago (1991). Coaxial atomizer liquid intact lengths. Physics of Fluids A: Fluid Dynamics 3(2), 303–308.  ##
Fukui, Y., K. Nakanishi and S. Okamura (1980). Computer evaluation of sprinkler irrigation uniformity. Irrigation Science 2(1), 23–32.##
Hua, L., H. Li and Y. Jiang (2021). Axis-switching Behavior of Liquid Jets Issued From Non- circular Nozzles under Low-intermediate Pressure. Applied Engineering in Agriculture ASABE 37(2), 367–378.##
Jain, S. S., N. Tyagi, R. S. Prakash, R. V. Ravikrishna and G. Tomar (2019). Secondary breakup of drops at moderate Weber numbers: Effect of Density ratio and Reynolds number. International Journal of Multiphase Flow 117, 25–41.##
Jiang, Y., H. Li, C. Chen and Q. Xiang (2018). Calculation and verification of formula for the range of sprinklers based on jet breakup length. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering 11(1), 49–57.##
Jiang, Y., H. Li, L. Hua, D. M. Zhang and Z. Issaka (2019). Experimental Study on Jet Breakup Morphologies and Jet Characteristic Parameters of Non-circular Nozzles Under Low- intermediate Pressures. Applied Engineering in Agriculture ASABE 35(1879), 617–632.##
Jones, D. P. and A. P. Watkins (2012). Droplet size and velocity distributions for spray modelling. Journal of Computational Physics 231(2), 676– 692.##
Kincaid, D. C., K. H. Solomon and J. C. Oliphant (1996). Drop size distributions for irrigation sprinklers. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 39(3), 839–845.##
Lasheras, J. C., E. Villermaux and E. J. Hopfinger (1998). Brea-kup and atomization of a round water jet by a high-spreed annular air jet. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 357, 351–379.##
Lefebvre, A. H. and V. G. McDonell (1988). Atomization and sprays. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.##
Leroux, B., O. Delabroy and F. Lacas (2007). Experimental study of coaxial atomizers scaling. Part I: Dense core zone. Atomization and Sprays 17(5), 381–407.##
Li, J. and H. Kawano (1995). Simulating Water-Drop Movement from Noncircular Sprinkler Nozzles. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 121(2), 152–158.##
Li, J., H. Kawano and K. Yu (1994). Droplet Size Distributions From Different Shaped Sprinkler Nozzles. Transactions of the ASAE 37(6), 1871–1878.##
Lin, S. P. (1996). Regimes of Jet Breakup and Breakup Mechanisms (Mathematical Aspects). In Recent Advances in Spray Combustion: Spray Atomization and Drop Burning Phenomena (pp. 137–160).##
Liu, A. B., D. Mather and R. D. Reitz (1993). Modeling the effects of drop drag and breakup on fuel sprays. SAE Technical Papers 1(1), 1–13.##
Lorenzini, G. (2004). Simplified Modelling of Sprinkler Droplet Dynamics. Biosystems Engineering 87(1), 1–11.##
Mugele, R. A. and H. D. Evans (1951). Droplet Size Distribution in Sprays. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 43(6), 1317–1323.##
Munnannur, A. and R. D. Reitz (2007). A new predictive model for fragmenting and non- fragmenting binary droplet collisions. International Journal of Multiphase Flow 33(8), 873–896.##
Park, H., S. S. Yoon and S. D. Heister (2005). A nonlinear atomization model for computation of drop size distributions and spray simulations. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 48(11), 1219–1240.##
Porcheron, E., J. L. Carreau, L. Prevost, D. Le Visage and F. Roger (2002). Effect of injection gas density on coaxial liquid jet atomization. Atomization and Sprays 12, 209–227.##
Qu, Y., X. Liu, M. Zhang, Y. Wang and C. Liu (2021). Analysis and evaluation of drop point for water jet based on wave model. Journal of Engineering Research 9(1), 229–246.##
Shang, W., X. Liu, M. Zhang, Y. Qu and Y. Wang (2021). Firewater monitor trajectories based on jet expansion and dynamic breakup model. Journal of Testing and Evaluation 49(1), 435–451.##
Sridhara, S. N. and B. N. Raghunandan (2010). Photographic investigations of jet disintegration in airblast sprays. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 3(2), 111–123.##
Wu, P. K., L. K. Tseng and G. M. Faeth (1992). Primary breakup in gas/liquid mixing layers for turbulent liquids. Atomization and Sprays 1(3).##
Wu, Y., L. Wang, W. Lin, G. Song, Y. He, X. Wu and K. Cen (2020). Picosecond pulsed digital off-axis holography for near-nozzle droplet size and 3D distribution measurement of a swirl kerosene spray. Fuel 283, 119–124.##
Yan, H. J., G. Bai, J. Q. He and Y. J. Li (2010). Model of droplet dynamics and evaporation for sprinkler irrigation. Biosystems Engineering 106(4), 440–447.##
Zhang, Y., D. Zhu, L. Zhang and X. Gong (2015). Water Distribution Model of Fixed Spray Plate Sprinkler Based on Ballistic Trajectory Equation. Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 46(12), 55–61.##
Zhu, J., W. Li, D. Lin and G. Zhao (2019). Study on Water Jet Trajectory Model of Fire Monitor Based on Simulation and Experiment. Fire Technology 55(3), 773–787.##
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Serial Number 67
September and October 2022
Pages 1491-1501
  • Received: 15 December 2021
  • Revised: 19 April 2022
  • Accepted: 30 May 2022
  • First Publish Date: 03 July 2022