A CFD Study of the Effects of Slots on Energy Harvesting from Flow-Induced Circular Cylinder Vibrations

Document Type : Regular Article


Center for Renewable Energies Development, CDER, BP 62 Road of the Observatory, Bouzareah, 16340, Algiers, Algeria



In this paper, numerical investigations of the harnessed power from Flow-Induced Vibrations of a new modified circular cylinder are performed. The proposed cylinder modification consists in adding two slots located on the front surface of the cylinder, instead of the baseline configuration, usually applied, which consists of a Passive Turbulence Control in form two straight strips. The computations are based on the solution of the Unsteady Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (URANS) coupled with the dynamic equations system describing the cylinder motion, where turbulence is modeled using the two-equation SST k – ω model. The harvested and the harnessed powers are thereafter calculated according to the amplitude and the frequency of the cylinder oscillatory motion. The numerical results show that the slots lead to shift the flow separation point toward the leading edge, which involves higher hydrodynamic instabilities resulting in higher oscillations amplitudes, and thereby a significant enhancement of the harnessed power is noticed.


Abdelkefi, A. (2016). Aeroelastic energy harvesting: A review. International Journal of Engineering Science 100, 112–135.##
Adhikari, S., A. Rastogi and B. Bhattacharya (2020). Piezoelectric vortex induced vibration energy harvesting in a random flow field. Smart Materials and Structures 29(3), 035034.##
Archambeau, F., N. Mechitoua and M. Sakiz (2004). Code saturne: A finite volume code for the computation of turbulent incompressible flows. International Journal on Finite Volumes 1, 1–62.##
Barrero-Gil, A., S. Pindado and S. Avila (2012). Extracting energy from vortex-induced vibrations: a parametric study. Applied Mathematical Modelling 36, 3153–3160.##
Bekhti, A., O. Guerri and T. Rezoug (2016). Flap/lead-lag computational investigations on NREL S809 airfoil. Mechanics & Industry 17(6), P606.##
Bernitsas, M. M. and K. Raghavan (2005). Fluid motion energy converter. International. Provisional Patent Application, USA Patent and Trademark Office.##
Bernitsas, M. M., K. Raghavan, Y. Ben-Simon and E. M. H. Garcia (2006). VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration Aquatic Clean Energy): a new concept in generation of clean and renewable energy from fluid flow. Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering 130.##
Boudis, A., A. Benzaoui, H. Oualli, O. Guerri, A. C. Bayeul-Lain´e and O. C. Delgosha (2018). Energy extraction performance improvement of a flapping foil by the use of combined foil. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 11(6), 1651–1663.##
Chang, C. C. (2010). Hydrokinetic energy harnessing by enhancement of flow induced motion using passive turbulence control. Ph. D. thesis, Naval architecture and marine engineering. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.##
Chang, C. C. J., R. A. Kumar and M. M. Bernitsas (2011). VIV and galloping of single circular cylinder with surface roughness at 3.0´104£Re£1.2´105. Ocean Engineering 38, 1713–1732.##
Chizfahm, A., E. A. Yazdi and M. Eghtesad (2018). Dynamic modeling of vortex in duced vibration wind turbines. Renewable Energy 121, 632–643.##
Ding, L., L. Zhang, C. Wua, X. Maoa and D. Jiang (2015a). Flow induced motion and energy harvesting of bluff bodies with different cross sections. Energy Conversion and Management 91, 416–426.##
Ding, L., L. Zhang, E. S. Kim and M. M. Bernitsas (2015b). 2-D URANS vs. experiments of flow induced motions of multiple circular cylinders with passive turbulence control for 30,000<Re<105,000. Journal of Fluids and Structures 54, 612–628.##
Ding, L., L. Zhang, M. M. Bernitsas and C. C. Chang (2016). Numerical simulation and experimental validation for energy harvesting of single-cylinder VIVACE converter with passive turbulence control. Renewable Energy 85, 1246–1259.##
Ding, L., M. M. Bernitsas and E. S. Kim (2013). 2-D URANS vs. experiments of flow induced motions of two circular cylinders in tandem with passive turbulence control for 30,000<Re<105,000. Ocean Engineering 72, 429–440.##
Ding, L., Q. Zou, L. Zhang and H. Wang (2018). Research on flow-induced vibration and energy harvesting of three circular cylinders with roughness strips in tandem. Energies 11, 2977.##
EDF R&D (2015). Code Saturne 4.0.0 Theory Guide. EDF R&D.##
Gu, M., B. Song, B. Zhang, Z. Mao and W. Tian (2019). The effects of submergence depth on vortex-induced vibration (VIV) and energy harvesting of a circular cylinder. Renewable Energy 151, 931–945.##
Guerri, O., A. Hamdouni and A. Sakout (2008). Fluid structure interaction of wind turbine airfoils. Wind Engineering 32(6), 539–557.##
Lee, Y. J., Y. Qi, G. Zhou and K. B. Lua (2019). Vortex-induced vibration wind energy harvesting by piezoelectric MEMS device in formation. Scientific Reports 9(1), 1–11.##
Mehmood, A., A. Abdelkefi, M. R. Hajj, A. H. Nayfeh, I. Akhtar and A. O. Nuhait (2013). Piezoelectric energy harvesting from vortex induced vibrations of circular cylinder. Journal of Sound and Vibration 332, 4656–4667.##
Menter, F. R. (1994). Two-equation eddyviscosity turbulence models for engineering applications. AIAA Journal 32, 1598–1605.##
Rhie, C. and W. Chow (1983, November). Numerical study of the turbulent flow past an airfoil with trailing edge separation. AIAA Journal 21(11), 1525–1532.##
Rostami, A. B. and M. Armandei (2017). Renewable energy harvesting by vortex induced motions: Review and benchmarking of technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 70, 193–214.##
Shi, T., G. Hu, L. Zou, J. Song and K. C. S. Kwok (2021). Performance of an omnidirectional piezoelectric wind energy harvester. Wind Energy 24(1167-1179).##
Wang, J., C. Zhang, D. Yurchenko, A. Abdelkefi, M. Zhang and H. Liu (2022). Usefulness of inclined circular cylinders for designing ultra-wide bandwidth piezoelectric energy harvesters: Experiments and computational investigations. Energy 239, 122203.##
Wei, C. and X. Jing (2017). A comprehensive review on vibration energy harvesting: Modelling and realization. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 74, 1–18.##
Wu, W. (2011). Two-Dimensional RANS simulation of Flow Induced Motion of Circular Cylinder with Passive Turbulence Control. Ph. D. thesis, Naval architecture and marine engineering. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.##
Xie, X. D. and Q. Wang (2015). Energy harvesting from a vehicle suspension system. Energy 86, 385–392.##
Zhang, B., Z. Mao, B. Song, W. Ding and W. Tian (2018). Numerical investigation on effect of damping-ratio and mass-ratio on energy harnessing of a square cylinder in FIM. Energy 144, 218–231.##
Zhang, L., X. Mao and L. Ding (2019). Influence of attack angle on vortex-induced vibration and energy harvesting of two cylinders in side-by-side arrangement. Advances in Mechanical Engineering 11(1), 1–13.##
Zhang, M., X. Wang and O. Øiseth (2021a). Torsional vibration of a circular cylinder with an attached splitter plate in laminar flow. Ocean Engineering 236, 109514.##
Zhang, M.,  C. Zhang, A. Abdelkefi, H. Yu, O. Gaidai, X. Qin, H. Zhu and J. Wang (2021b). Piezoelectric energy harvesting from vortex-induced vibration of a circular cylinder: Effect of Reynolds number. Ocean Engineering 235, 109378.##
Zhou, S. and J. Wang (2018). Dual serial vortex induced energy harvesting system for enhanced energy harvesting. AIP Advances 8, 075221.##
Zhu, H., Y. Zhao and T. Zhou (2018). CFD analysis of energy harvesting from flow induced vibration of a circular cylinder with an attached free-to-rotate pentagram impeller. Applied Energy 212, 304–321.##
Volume 15, Issue 5
September and October 2022
Pages 1581-1591
  • Received: 21 January 2022
  • Revised: 04 May 2022
  • Accepted: 24 May 2022
  • First Publish Date: 06 July 2022