Investigation of An Inverted Bow on Frigate Hull Resistance

Document Type : Regular Article


1 Department of Naval Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50275, Indonesia

2 Research Center for Hydrodynamics Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Surabaya 60117, Indonesia



This study discusses the inverted bow design on the combatant hull form. Changes in the shape of the stem angle and flare bow are used as analytical parameters to investigate the ship's performance. Ship resistance and motion will be predicted using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach using the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equation and the k-ε turbulence model. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is applied to simulate the change in the free surface between water and air using an overset mesh technique. The ship's movement is limited to sinkage and trim motions, so the movement's accuracy can be predicted. The results revealed that the inverted bow reduced the total resistance by 6.30%, whereas the trim and sinkage showed no significant changes. The breakdown of the reduction ratio showed that friction resistance components were reduced by 10.62%, wave resistance by 44.05%, and viscous-pressure resistance by 45.33%. This highlights the effectiveness of an inverted bow in optimizing wave and viscous pressure, enhancing overall ship performance.


Main Subjects

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Volume 17, Issue 1 - Serial Number 81
January 2024
Pages 136-147
  • Received: 24 June 2023
  • Revised: 05 September 2023
  • Accepted: 08 September 2023
  • Available online: 01 November 2023