Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul, Korea
In this study, a mathematical analysis by considering the effect of an actual index of expansion clearly shows a persistent of the existence of subsonic flow after the throat to a down stream in the region of divergent part to produce a supersonic velocity at the exit of a convergent-divergent nozzle. The length of the divergent part where subsonic velocity found is dependent upon the magnitude of the nozzle efficiency and the actual index of expansion. The change in velocity from subsonic, sonic and supersonic occurs only in the divergent part while the corresponding frictionless behavior has the classical features (subsonic in the convergent, sonic at the throat, and supersonic in the divergent). This is mainly due to thermodynamic processes which result a change in enthalpy due to friction and a gain in entropy. The reference conditions are newly derived for an actual frictional flow condition. This design aspect differs in a physical manner corresponding to that from an isentropic flow. An actual nozzle shape for convergent-divergent nozzles is also investigated under a non-isentropic flow condition.