Numerical Investigation of Sinusoidal and Trapezoidal Piston Profiles for an IC Engine


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Velammal Institute of Technology, Chennai-601204, India

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aarupadai Veedu Institute of Technology, Old Mahabalipuram Road, Chennai-603104, India

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, S.A Engineering College, Chennai-602105, India


This paper is aimed at a comparative investigation on two different velocity profiles for piston movement namely Sinusoidal and Trapezoidal Profiles for an IC Engine. In conventional IC Engine, velocity profile of piston motion is Sinusoidal. It has many disadvantages such as high mean velocity that leads to high inertial force, frictional losses, wear and high rate of heat leakages. Nearly 20% of the total power produced by the engine is dissipated into heat because of friction. Of this 20%, about 75% is due to friction of piston rings on the cylinder walls. This is an irreversible loss and can be seen as a consequence of high mean piston velocity associated with the existing Sinusoidal Piston Velocity Profile. In addition, varying velocity profile can cause rapid acceleration and finally jerks which lead to considerable mechanical vibration and noise. As a result the mechanical strength of engine material will be high to withstand the inertial force, friction and wear. To overcome these difficulties, an extensive attempt is made to improve the piston movement by restructuring the piston velocity profile with reduced mean velocity which is constant for most of the crank angle. A comprehensive experimental examination is conducted for the Sinusoidal velocity profile, which are utilized in arriving at an optimal CFD procedure through validation study. A proposed connecting rod configuration with internal gear and pinion arrangement is proposed to achieve different Trapezoidal Profiles. The optimum CFD procedure found from validation study is used to analyze and understand the engine with modified Trapezoidal Velocity Profiles. There is almost 20% reduction of mean piston velocity that considerably improves hydro-thermo dynamic and mechanical characteristics of the existing engine.